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143
Priorities in process algebra
, 1999
"... This chapter surveys the semantic rami cations of extending traditional process algebras with notions of priority that allow for some transitions to be given precedence over others. The need for these enriched formalisms arises when one wishes to model system features such asinterrupts, prioritized ..."
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Cited by 103 (12 self)
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This chapter surveys the semantic rami cations of extending traditional process algebras with notions of priority that allow for some transitions to be given precedence over others. The need for these enriched formalisms arises when one wishes to model system features such asinterrupts, prioritized choice, orrealtime behavior. Approaches to priority in process algebras can be classi ed according to whether the induced notion of preemption on transitions is global or local and whether priorities are static or dynamic. Early work in the area concentrated on global preemption and static priorities and led to formalisms for modeling interrupts and aspects of realtime, such as maximal progress, in centralized computing environments. More recent research has investigated localized notions of preemption in which the distribution of systems is taken into account, as well as dynamic priority approaches, i.e., those where priority values may change as systems evolve. The latter allows one to model behavioral phenomena such as scheduling algorithms and also enables the e cient encoding of realtime semantics. Technically, this chapter studies the di erent models of priorities by presenting extensions of Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS) with static and dynamic priority as well as with notions of global and local preemption. In each case the operational semantics of CCS is modi ed appropriately, behavioral theories based on strong and weak bisimulation are given, and related approaches for di erent processalgebraic settings are discussed.
The concurrency workbench: A semantics based tool for the verification of concurrent systems
 In Proceedings of the Workshop on Automatic Verification Methods for Finite State Machines
, 1991
"... Abstract The Concurrency Workbench is an automated tool for analyzing networks of finitestate processes expressed in Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems. Its key feature is its breadth: a variety of different verification methods, including equivalence checking, preorder checking, and model ..."
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Cited by 102 (3 self)
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Abstract The Concurrency Workbench is an automated tool for analyzing networks of finitestate processes expressed in Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems. Its key feature is its breadth: a variety of different verification methods, including equivalence checking, preorder checking, and model checking, are supported for several different process semantics. One experience from our work is that a large number of interesting verification methods can be formulated as combinations of a small number of primitive algorithms. The Workbench has been applied to the verification of communications protocols and mutual exclusion algorithms and has proven a valuable aid in teaching and research. 1 Introduction This paper describes the Concurrency Workbench [11, 12, 13], a tool that supports the automatic verification of finitestate processes. Such tools are practically motivated: the development of complex distributed computer systems requires sophisticated verification techniques to guarantee correctness, and the increase in detail rapidly becomes unmanageable without computer assistance. Finitestate systems, such as communications protocols and hardware, are particularly suitable for automated analysis because their finitary nature ensures the existence of decision procedures for a wide range of system properties.
Classification of Security Properties (Part I: Information Flow)
, 2001
"... In the recent years, many formalizations of security properties have been proposed, most of which are based on different underlying models and are consequently difficult to compare. A classification of security properties is thus of interest for understanding the relationships among different defini ..."
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Cited by 90 (16 self)
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In the recent years, many formalizations of security properties have been proposed, most of which are based on different underlying models and are consequently difficult to compare. A classification of security properties is thus of interest for understanding the relationships among different definitions and for evaluating the relative merits. In this paper, many noninterferencelike properties proposed for computer security are classified and compared in a unifying framework. The resulting taxonomy is evaluated through some case studies of access control in computer systems. The approach has been mechanized, resulting in the tool CoSeC. Various extensions (e.g., the application to cryptographic protocol analysis) and open problems are discussed. This paper
An Implementation of an Efficient Algorithm for Bisimulation Equivalence
 Science of Computer Programming
, 1989
"... We present an efficient algorithm for bisimulation equivalence. Generally, bisimulation equivalence can be tested in O(mn) for a labeled transition system with m transitions and n states. In order to come up with a more efficient algorithm, we establish a relationship between bisimulation equivalenc ..."
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Cited by 87 (7 self)
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We present an efficient algorithm for bisimulation equivalence. Generally, bisimulation equivalence can be tested in O(mn) for a labeled transition system with m transitions and n states. In order to come up with a more efficient algorithm, we establish a relationship between bisimulation equivalence and the relational coarsest partition problem, solved by Paige & Tarjan in O(m log n) time. Given an initial partition and a binary relation, the problem is to find the coarsest partition compatible with them. Computing bisimulation equivalence can be viewed both as an instance and as a generalization of this problem: an instance, because only the universal partition is considered as an initial partition and a generalization since we want to find a partition compatible with a family of binary relations instead of one single binary relation. We describe how we have adapted the Paige & Tarjan algorithm of complexity O(m log n) to minimize labeled transition systems modulo bisimulation equivalence. This algorithm has been implemented in C and is used in Aldebaran, a tool for the verification of concurrent systems.
The Compositional Security Checker: A Tool for the Verification of Information Flow Security Properties
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
, 1996
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Testing Equivalence as a Bisimulation Equivalence
 Formal Aspects of Computing
, 1993
"... In this paper we show how the testing equivalences and preorders on transition systems may be interpreted as instances of generalized bisimulation equivalences and prebisimulation preorders. The characterization relies on defining transformations on the transition systems in such a way that the te ..."
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Cited by 65 (11 self)
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In this paper we show how the testing equivalences and preorders on transition systems may be interpreted as instances of generalized bisimulation equivalences and prebisimulation preorders. The characterization relies on defining transformations on the transition systems in such a way that the testing relations on the original systems correspond to (pre)bisimulation relations on the altered systems. Using these results, it is possible to use algorithms for determining the (pre)bisimulation relations in the case of finitestate transition systems to compute the testing relations.
Compositional Reachability Analysis Using Process Algebra
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE SYMPOSIUM ON TESTING, ANALYSIS, AND VERIFICATION (TAV4
, 1991
"... State explosion is the primary obstacle to practical application of reachability analysis techniques for concurrent systems. State explosion can be substantially controlled by using process algebra to achieve compositional (divideandconquer) analysis. A prototype tool incorporating process algebra ..."
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Cited by 59 (3 self)
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State explosion is the primary obstacle to practical application of reachability analysis techniques for concurrent systems. State explosion can be substantially controlled by using process algebra to achieve compositional (divideandconquer) analysis. A prototype tool incorporating process algebra is described. The promise and problems of the approach are illustrated by applying the tool to an example that incorporates the alternating bit protocol as a module.
Modeling Component Connectors in Reo by Constraint Automata (Extended Abstract)
, 2004
"... Reo is an exogenous coordination language for compositional construction of component connectors based on a calculus of channels. Building automated tools to address such concerns as equivalence or containment of the behavior of two given connectors, verification of the behavior of a connector, etc. ..."
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Cited by 58 (26 self)
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Reo is an exogenous coordination language for compositional construction of component connectors based on a calculus of channels. Building automated tools to address such concerns as equivalence or containment of the behavior of two given connectors, verification of the behavior of a connector, etc. requires an operational semantic model suitable for model checking. In this paper we introduce constraint automata and propose them as a semantic model for Reo.
Weak Bisimulation for Fully Probabilistic Processes
, 1999
"... Bisimulations that abstract from internal computation have proven to be useful for verification of compositionally defined transition systems. In the literature of probabilistic extensions of such transition systems, similar bisimulations are rare. In this paper, we introduce weak and branching bisi ..."
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Cited by 57 (7 self)
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Bisimulations that abstract from internal computation have proven to be useful for verification of compositionally defined transition systems. In the literature of probabilistic extensions of such transition systems, similar bisimulations are rare. In this paper, we introduce weak and branching bisimulation for fully probabilistic systems, transition systems where nondeterministic branching is replaced by probabilistic branching. In contrast to the nondeterministic case, both relations coincide. We give an algorithm to decide weak (and branching) bisimulation with a time complexity cubic in the number of states of the fully probabilistic system. This meets the worst case complexity for deciding branching bisimulation in the nondeterministic case. In addition, the relation is shown to be a congruence with respect to the operators of PLSCCS , a lazy synchronous probabilistic variant of CCS. We illustrate that due to these properties, weak bisimulation provides all the crucial ingredients...