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12
A model of information retrieval based on a terminological logic
, 1993
"... According to the logical model of Information Retrieval (IR), the task of IR can be described as the extraction, from a given document base, of those documents d that, given a query q, make the formula d → q valid, where d and q are formulae of the chosen logic and “→ ” denotes the brand of logical ..."
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Cited by 93 (19 self)
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According to the logical model of Information Retrieval (IR), the task of IR can be described as the extraction, from a given document base, of those documents d that, given a query q, make the formula d → q valid, where d and q are formulae of the chosen logic and “→ ” denotes the brand of logical implication formalized by the logic in question. In this paper, although essentially subscribing to this view, we propose that the logic to be chosen for this endeavour be a Terminological Logic (TL): accordingly, the IR task becomes that of singling out those documents d such that d � q, where d and q are terms of the chosen TL and “�” denotes subsumption between terms. We call this the terminological model of IR. TLs are particularly suitable for modelling IR; in fact, they can be employed: 1) in representing documents under a variety of aspects (e.g. structural, layout, semantic content); 2) in representing queries; 3) in representing lexical, “thesaural ” knowledge. The fact that a single logical language can be used for all these representational endeavours ensures that all these sources of knowledge will participate in the retrieval process in a uniform and principled way. In this paper we introduce Mirtl, a TL for modelling IR according to the above guidelines; its syntax, formal semantics and inferential algorithm are described. 1
Statistical Foundations for Default Reasoning
, 1993
"... We describe a new approach to default reasoning, based on a principle of indifference among possible worlds. We interpret default rules as extreme statistical statements, thus obtaining a knowledge base KB comprised of statistical and firstorder statements. We then assign equal probability to all w ..."
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Cited by 45 (8 self)
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We describe a new approach to default reasoning, based on a principle of indifference among possible worlds. We interpret default rules as extreme statistical statements, thus obtaining a knowledge base KB comprised of statistical and firstorder statements. We then assign equal probability to all worlds consistent with KB in order to assign a degree of belief to a statement '. The degree of belief can be used to decide whether to defeasibly conclude '. Various natural patterns of reasoning, such as a preference for more specific defaults, indifference to irrelevant information, and the ability to combine independent pieces of evidence, turn out to follow naturally from this technique. Furthermore, our approach is not restricted to default reasoning; it supports a spectrum of reasoning, from quantitative to qualitative. It is also related to other systems for default reasoning. In particular, we show that the work of [ Goldszmidt et al., 1990 ] , which applies maximum entropy ideas t...
Bayesian networks
"... Probabilistic models based on directed acyclic graphs have a long and rich tradition, beginning with work by the geneticist Sewall Wright in the 1920s. Variants have appeared in many fields. Within statistics, such models are known as directed graphical models; within cognitive science and artificia ..."
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Cited by 45 (0 self)
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Probabilistic models based on directed acyclic graphs have a long and rich tradition, beginning with work by the geneticist Sewall Wright in the 1920s. Variants have appeared in many fields. Within statistics, such models are known as directed graphical models; within cognitive science and artificial intelligence, such models are known as Bayesian networks.
Probabilistic Deduction with Conditional Constraints over Basic Events
 J. Artif. Intell. Res
, 1999
"... We study the problem of probabilistic deduction with conditional constraints over basic events. We show that globally complete probabilistic deduction with conditional constraints over basic events is NPhard. We then concentrate on the special case of probabilistic deduction in conditional constrai ..."
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Cited by 44 (30 self)
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We study the problem of probabilistic deduction with conditional constraints over basic events. We show that globally complete probabilistic deduction with conditional constraints over basic events is NPhard. We then concentrate on the special case of probabilistic deduction in conditional constraint trees. We elaborate very efficient techniques for globally complete probabilistic deduction. In detail, for conditional constraint trees with point probabilities, we present a local approach to globally complete probabilistic deduction, which runs in linear time in the size of the conditional constraint trees. For conditional constraint trees with interval probabilities, we show that globally complete probabilistic deduction can be done in a global approach by solving nonlinear programs. We show how these nonlinear programs can be transformed into equivalent linear programs, which are solvable in polynomial time in the size of the conditional constraint trees. 1. Introduction Dealing wit...
A Logic for Default Reasoning About Probabilities
, 1998
"... A logic is defined that allows to express information about statistical probabilities and about degrees of belief in specific propositions. By interpreting the two types of probabilities in one common probability space, the semantics given are well suited to model the in uence of statistical informa ..."
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Cited by 12 (4 self)
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A logic is defined that allows to express information about statistical probabilities and about degrees of belief in specific propositions. By interpreting the two types of probabilities in one common probability space, the semantics given are well suited to model the in uence of statistical information on the formation of subjective beliefs. Cross entropy minimization is a key element in these semantics, the use of which is justified by showing that the resulting logic exhibits some very reasonable properties.
Lp, A Logic for Representing and Reasoning with Statistical Knowledge
, 1990
"... This paper presents a logical formalism for representing and reasoning with statistical knowledge. One of the key features of the formalism is its ability to deal with qualitative statistical information. It is argued that statistical knowledge, especially that of a qualitative nature, is an importa ..."
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Cited by 11 (0 self)
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This paper presents a logical formalism for representing and reasoning with statistical knowledge. One of the key features of the formalism is its ability to deal with qualitative statistical information. It is argued that statistical knowledge, especially that of a qualitative nature, is an important component of our world knowledge and that such knowledge is used in many different reasoning tasks. The work is further motivated by the observation that previous formalisms for representing probabilistic information are inadequate for representing statistical knowledge. The representation mechanism takes the form of a logic that is capable of representing a wide variety of statistical knowledge, and that possesses an intuitive formal semantics based on the simple notions of sets of objects and probabilities defined over those sets. Furthermore, a proof theory is developed and is shown to be sound and complete. The formalism offers a perspicuous and powerful representational tool for stat...
Discovering Robust Knowledge from Databases that Change
 DATA MINING AND KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY
, 1998
"... Many applications of knowledge discovery and data mining such as rule discovery for semantic query optimization, database integration and decision support, require the knowledge to be consistent with data. However, databases usually change over time and makemachinediscovered knowledge inconsiste ..."
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Cited by 7 (1 self)
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Many applications of knowledge discovery and data mining such as rule discovery for semantic query optimization, database integration and decision support, require the knowledge to be consistent with data. However, databases usually change over time and makemachinediscovered knowledge inconsistent. Useful knowledge should be robust against database changessothatitisunlikely to become inconsistentafter database changes. This paper defines this notion of robustness in the context of relational databases that contain multiple relations and describes how robustness of firstorder Hornclause rules can be estimated and applied in knowledge discovery.Our experiments show that the estimation approach can accurately predict the robustness of a rule.
A model for reasoning with uncertain rules in event composition
 In Proc. of UAI
, 2005
"... In recent years, there has been an increased need for the use of active systems systems required to act automatically based on events, or changes in the environment. Such systems span many areas, from active databases to applications that drive the core business processes of today’s enterprises. Ho ..."
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Cited by 6 (2 self)
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In recent years, there has been an increased need for the use of active systems systems required to act automatically based on events, or changes in the environment. Such systems span many areas, from active databases to applications that drive the core business processes of today’s enterprises. However, in many cases, the events to which the system must respond are not generated by monitoring tools, but must be inferred from other events based on complex temporal predicates. In addition, in many applications, such inference is inherently uncertain. In this paper, we introduce a formal framework for knowledge representation and reasoning enabling such event inference. Based on probability theory, we de…ne the representation of the associated uncertainty. In addition, we formally de…ne the probability space, and show how the relevant probabilities can be calculated by dynamically constructing a Bayesian network. To the best of our knowledge, this is the …rst work that enables taking such uncertainty into account in the context of active systems. Therefore, our contribution is twofold: We formally de…ne the representation and semantics of event composition for probabilistic settings, and show how to apply these extensions to the quanti…cation of the occurrence probability of events. These results enable any active system to handle such uncertainty. 1
Believing Change and Changing Belief
 IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Special Issue on HigherOrder Uncertainty
, 1996
"... We present a firstorder logic of time, chance, and probability that is capable of expressing the four types of higherorder probability sentences relating subjective probability and objective chance at different times. We define a causal notion of objective chance and show how it can be used in con ..."
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Cited by 4 (0 self)
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We present a firstorder logic of time, chance, and probability that is capable of expressing the four types of higherorder probability sentences relating subjective probability and objective chance at different times. We define a causal notion of objective chance and show how it can be used in conjunction with subjective probability to distinguish between causal and evidential correlation by distinguishing between conditions, events, and actions that 1) influence the agent's belief in chance and 2) the agent believes to influence chance. Furthermore, the semantics of the logic captures some commonsense inferences concerning objective chance and causality. We show that an agent's subjective probability is the expected value of its beliefs concerning objective chance. We also prove that an agent using this representation believes with certainty that the past cannot be causally influenced. To appear in IEEE SMC special issue on HigherOrder Probability. 1 Introduction Temporal probab...