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73
Adaptive Precision FloatingPoint Arithmetic and Fast Robust Geometric Predicates
 Discrete & Computational Geometry
, 1996
"... Exact computer arithmetic has a variety of uses including, but not limited to, the robust implementation of geometric algorithms. This report has three purposes. The first is to offer fast softwarelevel algorithms for exact addition and multiplication of arbitrary precision floatingpoint values. T ..."
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Cited by 133 (5 self)
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Exact computer arithmetic has a variety of uses including, but not limited to, the robust implementation of geometric algorithms. This report has three purposes. The first is to offer fast softwarelevel algorithms for exact addition and multiplication of arbitrary precision floatingpoint values. The second is to propose a technique for adaptiveprecision arithmetic that can often speed these algorithms when one wishes to perform multiprecision calculations that do not always require exact arithmetic, but must satisfy some error bound. The third is to provide a practical demonstration of these techniques, in the form of implementations of several common geometric calculations whose required degree of accuracy depends on their inputs. These robust geometric predicates are adaptive; their running time depends on the degree of uncertainty of the result, and is usually small. These algorithms work on computers whose floatingpoint arithmetic uses radix two and exact rounding, including machines complying with the IEEE 754 standard. The inputs to the predicates may be arbitrary single or double precision floatingpoint numbers. C code is publicly available for the 2D and 3D orientation and incircle tests, and robust Delaunay triangulation using these tests. Timings of the implementations demonstrate their effectiveness. Supported in part by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada under a 1967 Science and Engineering Scholarship and by the National Science Foundation under Grant CMS9318163. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the author and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies, either express or implied, of NSERC, NSF, or the U.S. Government. Keywords: arbitrary precision floatingpoint arit...
The Exact Computation Paradigm
, 1994
"... We describe a paradigm for numerical computing, based on exact computation. This emerging paradigm has many advantages compared to the standard paradigm which is based on fixedprecision. We first survey the literature on multiprecision number packages, a prerequisite for exact computation. Next ..."
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Cited by 94 (10 self)
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We describe a paradigm for numerical computing, based on exact computation. This emerging paradigm has many advantages compared to the standard paradigm which is based on fixedprecision. We first survey the literature on multiprecision number packages, a prerequisite for exact computation. Next we survey some recent applications of this paradigm. Finally, we outline some basic theory and techniques in this paradigm. 1 This paper will appear as a chapter in the 2nd edition of Computing in Euclidean Geometry, edited by D.Z. Du and F.K. Hwang, published by World Scientific Press, 1994. 1 1 Two Numerical Computing Paradigms Computation has always been intimately associated with numbers: computability theory was early on formulated as a theory of computable numbers, the first computers have been number crunchers and the original massproduced computers were pocket calculators. Although one's first exposure to computers today is likely to be some nonnumerical application, numeri...
Towards Exact Geometric Computation
, 1994
"... Exact computation is assumed in most algorithms in computational geometry. In practice, implementors perform computation in some fixedprecision model, usually the machine floatingpoint arithmetic. Such implementations have many wellknown problems, here informally called "robustness issues". To rec ..."
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Cited by 88 (6 self)
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Exact computation is assumed in most algorithms in computational geometry. In practice, implementors perform computation in some fixedprecision model, usually the machine floatingpoint arithmetic. Such implementations have many wellknown problems, here informally called "robustness issues". To reconcile theory and practice, authors have suggested that theoretical algorithms ought to be redesigned to become robust under fixedprecision arithmetic. We suggest that in many cases, implementors should make robustness a nonissue by computing exactly. The advantages of exact computation are too many to ignore. Many of the presumed difficulties of exact computation are partly surmountable and partly inherent with the robustness goal. This paper formulates the theoretical framework for exact computation based on algebraic numbers. We then examine the practical support needed to make the exact approach a viable alternative. It turns out that the exact computation paradigm encomp...
Static Analysis Yields Efficient Exact Integer Arithmetic for Computational Geometry
 ACM Trans. Graph
, 1996
"... Geometric algorithms are usually described assuming that arithmetic operations are performed exactly on real numbers. A program implemented using a naive substitution of floatingpoint arithmetic for real arithmetic can fail, since geometric primitives depend upon signevaluation and may not be re ..."
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Cited by 58 (4 self)
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Geometric algorithms are usually described assuming that arithmetic operations are performed exactly on real numbers. A program implemented using a naive substitution of floatingpoint arithmetic for real arithmetic can fail, since geometric primitives depend upon signevaluation and may not be reliable if evaluated approximately. Geometric primitives are reliable if evaluated exactly with integer arithmetic, but this degrades performance since software extendedprecision arithmetic is required. We describe staticanalysis techniques that reduce the performance cost of exact integer arithmetic used to implement geometric algorithms. We have used the techniques for a number of examples, including linesegment intersection in two dimensions, Delaunay triangulations, and a threedimensional boundarybased polyhedral modeller. In general, the techniques are appropriate for algorithms that use primitives of relatively low algebraic total degree, e.g., those involving flat objects (...
Aspects of Unstructured Grids and FiniteVolume Solvers for the Euler and NavierStokes Equations (Part 4)
, 1995
"... this report, the model was tested on various subsonic and transonic flow problems: flat plates, airfoils, wakes, etc. The model consists of a single advectiondiffusion equation with source term for a field variable which is the product of turbulence Reynolds number and kinematic viscosity, e RT . ..."
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Cited by 57 (0 self)
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this report, the model was tested on various subsonic and transonic flow problems: flat plates, airfoils, wakes, etc. The model consists of a single advectiondiffusion equation with source term for a field variable which is the product of turbulence Reynolds number and kinematic viscosity, e RT . This variable is proportional to the eddy viscosity except very near a solid wall. The model equation is of the form: D( e RT ) Dt =(c ffl 2 f 2 (y + ) \Gamma c ffl 1 ) q e RT P +( + t oe R )r 2 ( e RT ) \Gamma 1 oe ffl (r t ) \Delta r( e RT ): (6:3:3) In this equation P is the production of turbulent kinetic energy and is related to the mean flow velocity rateofstrain and the kinematic eddy viscosity t . Equation (6.3.3) depends on distance to solid walls in two ways. First, the damping function f 2 appearing in equation (6.3.3) depends directly on distance to the wall (in wall units). Secondly, t depends on e R t and damping functions which require distance to the wall
Interval arithmetic yields efficient dynamic filters for computational geometry
 Disc. Appl. Maths
"... We discuss floatingpoint filters as a means of restricting the precision needed for arithmetic operations while still computing the exact result. We show that interval techniques can be used to speed up the exact evaluation of geometric predicates and describe an efficient implementation of interva ..."
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Cited by 53 (12 self)
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We discuss floatingpoint filters as a means of restricting the precision needed for arithmetic operations while still computing the exact result. We show that interval techniques can be used to speed up the exact evaluation of geometric predicates and describe an efficient implementation of interval arithmetic that is strongly influenced by the rounding modes of the widely used IEEE 754 standard. Using this approach we engineer an efficient floatingpoint filter for the computation of the sign of a determinant that works for arbitrary dimensions. We validate our approach experimentally, comparing it with other static, dynamic and semistatic filters. 1
Robust Adaptive FloatingPoint Geometric Predicates
 in Proc. 12th Annu. ACM Sympos. Comput. Geom
, 1996
"... Fast C implementations of four geometric predicates, the 2D and 3D orientation and incircle tests, are publicly available. Their inputs are ordinary single or double precision floatingpoint numbers. They owe their speed to two features. First, they employ new fast algorithms for arbitrary precision ..."
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Cited by 48 (1 self)
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Fast C implementations of four geometric predicates, the 2D and 3D orientation and incircle tests, are publicly available. Their inputs are ordinary single or double precision floatingpoint numbers. They owe their speed to two features. First, they employ new fast algorithms for arbitrary precision arithmetic that have a strong advantage over other software techniques in computations that manipulate values of extended but small precision. Second, they are adaptive; their running time depends on the degree of uncertainty of the result, and is usually small. These algorithms work on computers whose floatingpoint arithmetic uses radix two and exact rounding, including machines that comply with the IEEE 754 floatingpoint standard. Timings of the predicates, in isolation and embedded in 2D and 3D Delaunay triangulation programs, verify their effectiveness. 1 Introduction Algorithms that make decisions based on geometric tests, such as determining which side of a line a point falls on, ...
Geometric Range Searching
, 1994
"... In geometric range searching, algorithmic problems of the following type are considered: Given an npoint set P in the plane, build a data structure so that, given a query triangle R, the number of points of P lying in R can be determined quickly. Problems of this type are of crucial importance in c ..."
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Cited by 46 (2 self)
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In geometric range searching, algorithmic problems of the following type are considered: Given an npoint set P in the plane, build a data structure so that, given a query triangle R, the number of points of P lying in R can be determined quickly. Problems of this type are of crucial importance in computational geometry, as they can be used as subroutines in many seemingly unrelated algorithms. We present a survey of results and main techniques in this area.