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80
On the power of smalldepth threshold circuits
 Proceedings 31st Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science
, 1990
"... Abstract. Weinvestigate the power of threshold circuits of small depth. In particular, we give functions that require exponential size unweighted threshold circuits of depth 3 when we restrict the bottom fanin. We also prove that there are monotone functions fk that can be computed in depth k and li ..."
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Cited by 101 (2 self)
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Abstract. Weinvestigate the power of threshold circuits of small depth. In particular, we give functions that require exponential size unweighted threshold circuits of depth 3 when we restrict the bottom fanin. We also prove that there are monotone functions fk that can be computed in depth k and linear size ^ � _circuits but require exponential size to compute by a depth k; 1 monotone weighted threshold circuit. Key words. Circuit complexity, monotone circuits, threshold circuits, lower bounds Subject classi cations. 68Q15, 68Q99 1.
Majority Gates vs. General Weighted Threshold Gates
 Computational Complexity
, 1992
"... . In this paper we study small depth circuits that contain threshold gates (with or without weights) and parity gates. All circuits we consider are of polynomial size. We prove several results which complete the work on characterizing possible inclusions between many classes defined by small depth c ..."
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Cited by 87 (6 self)
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. In this paper we study small depth circuits that contain threshold gates (with or without weights) and parity gates. All circuits we consider are of polynomial size. We prove several results which complete the work on characterizing possible inclusions between many classes defined by small depth circuits. These results are the following: 1. A single threshold gate with weights cannot in general be replaced by a polynomial fanin unweighted threshold gate of parity gates. 2. On the other hand it can be replaced by a depth 2 unweighted threshold circuit of polynomial size. An extension of this construction is used to prove that whatever can be computed by a depth d polynomial size threshold circuit with weights can be computed by a depth d + 1 polynomial size unweighted threshold circuit, where d is an arbitrary fixed integer. 3. A polynomial fanin threshold gate (with weights) of parity gates cannot in general be replaced by a depth 2 unweighted threshold circuit of polynomial size...
The Polynomial Method in Circuit Complexity
 In Proceedings of the 8th IEEE Structure in Complexity Theory Conference
, 1993
"... The representation of functions as lowdegree polynomials over various rings has provided many insights in the theory of smalldepth circuits. We survey some of the closure properties, upper bounds, and lower bounds obtained via this approach. 1. Introduction There is a long history of using polyno ..."
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Cited by 67 (4 self)
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The representation of functions as lowdegree polynomials over various rings has provided many insights in the theory of smalldepth circuits. We survey some of the closure properties, upper bounds, and lower bounds obtained via this approach. 1. Introduction There is a long history of using polynomials in order to prove complexity bounds. Minsky and Papert [39] used polynomials to prove early lower bounds on the order of perceptrons. Razborov [46] and Smolensky [49] used them to prove lower bounds on the size of ANDOR circuits. Other lower bounds via polynomials are due to [50, 4, 10, 51, 9, 55]. Paturi and Saks [44] discovered that rational functions could be used for lower bounds on the size of threshold circuits. Toda [53] used polynomials to prove upper bounds on the power of the polynomial hierarchy. This led to a series of upper bounds on the power of the polynomial hierarchy [54, 52], AC 0 [2, 3, 52, 19], and ACC [58, 20, 30, 37], and related classes [21, 42]. Beigel and Gi...
Representing Boolean Functions As Polynomials Modulo Composite Numbers
 Computational Complexity
, 1994
"... . Define the MODm degree of a boolean function F to be the smallest degree of any polynomial P , over the ring of integers modulo m, such that for all 01 assignments ~x, F (~x) = 0 iff P (~x) = 0. We obtain the unexpected result that the MODm degree of the OR of N variables is O( r p N ), wher ..."
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Cited by 53 (6 self)
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. Define the MODm degree of a boolean function F to be the smallest degree of any polynomial P , over the ring of integers modulo m, such that for all 01 assignments ~x, F (~x) = 0 iff P (~x) = 0. We obtain the unexpected result that the MODm degree of the OR of N variables is O( r p N ), where r is the number of distinct prime factors of m. This is optimal in the case of representation by symmetric polynomials. The MOD n function is 0 if the number of input ones is a multiple of n and is one otherwise. We show that the MODm degree of both the MOD n and :MOD n functions is N\Omega\Gamma1/ exactly when there is a prime dividing n but not m. The MODm degree of the MODm function is 1; we show that the MODm degree of :MODm is N\Omega\Gamma30 if m is not a power of a prime, O(1) otherwise. A corollary is that there exists an oracle relative to which the MODmP classes (such as \PhiP) have this structure: MODmP is closed under complementation and union iff m is a prime power, and...
Spectral Methods for Matrix Rigidity with Applications to SizeDepth Tradeoffs and Communication Complexity
 In Proc. 36th
, 1996
"... The rigidity of a matrix measures the number of entries that must be changed in order to reduce its rank below a certain value. The known lower bounds on the rigidity of explicit matrices are very weak. It is known that stronger lower bounds would have implications to complexity theory. We consider ..."
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Cited by 45 (3 self)
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The rigidity of a matrix measures the number of entries that must be changed in order to reduce its rank below a certain value. The known lower bounds on the rigidity of explicit matrices are very weak. It is known that stronger lower bounds would have implications to complexity theory. We consider restricted variants of the rigidity problem over the complex numbers. Using spectral methods, we derive lower bounds on these variants. Two applications of such restricted variants are given. First, we show that our lower bound on a variant of rigidity implies lower bounds on sizedepth tradeoffs for arithmetic circuits with bounded coefficients computing linear transformations. These bounds generalize a result of Nisan and Wigderson. The second application is conditional; we show that it would suffice to prove lower bounds on certain restricted forms of rigidity to conclude several separation results such as separating the analogs of PH and PSPACE in communication complexity theory. Our res...
Simulating Threshold Circuits by Majority Circuits
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 1994
"... We prove that a single threshold gate with arbitrary weights can be simulated by an explicit polynomialsize depth 2 majority circuit. In general we show that a depth d threshold circuit can be simulated uniformly by a majority circuit of depth d + 1. Goldmann, Hastad, and Razborov showed in [10 ..."
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Cited by 35 (0 self)
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We prove that a single threshold gate with arbitrary weights can be simulated by an explicit polynomialsize depth 2 majority circuit. In general we show that a depth d threshold circuit can be simulated uniformly by a majority circuit of depth d + 1. Goldmann, Hastad, and Razborov showed in [10] that a nonuniform simulation exists. Our construction answers two open questions posed in [10]: we give an explicit construction whereas [10] uses a randomized existence argument, and we show that such a simulation is possible even if the depth d grows with the number of variables n (the simulation in [10] gives polynomialsize circuits only when d is constant). 1 A preliminary version of this paper appeared in Proc. 25th ACM STOC (1993), pp. 551560. 2 Laboratory for Computer Science, MIT, Cambridge MA 02139, Email: migo@theory.lcs.mit.edu. This author 's work was done at Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, and while visiting the University of Bonn 3 Department of Com...
Circuit Complexity before the Dawn of the New Millennium
, 1997
"... The 1980's saw rapid and exciting development of techniques for proving lower bounds in circuit complexity. This pace has slowed recently, and there has even been work indicating that quite different proof techniques must be employed to advance beyond the current frontier of circuit lower bounds. Al ..."
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Cited by 30 (3 self)
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The 1980's saw rapid and exciting development of techniques for proving lower bounds in circuit complexity. This pace has slowed recently, and there has even been work indicating that quite different proof techniques must be employed to advance beyond the current frontier of circuit lower bounds. Although this has engendered pessimism in some quarters, there have in fact been many positive developments in the past few years showing that significant progress is possible on many fronts. This paper is a (necessarily incomplete) survey of the state of circuit complexity as we await the dawn of the new millennium.
The BNSChung Criterion for MultiParty Communication Complexity
 Computational Complexity
, 2000
"... The "Number on the Forehead" model of multiparty communication complexity was first suggested by Chandra, Furst and Lipton. The best known lower bound, for an explicit function (in this model), is a lower bound of \Omega\Gamma n=2 k ), where n is the size of the input of each player, and k is the ..."
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Cited by 30 (0 self)
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The "Number on the Forehead" model of multiparty communication complexity was first suggested by Chandra, Furst and Lipton. The best known lower bound, for an explicit function (in this model), is a lower bound of \Omega\Gamma n=2 k ), where n is the size of the input of each player, and k is the number of players (first proved by Babai, Nisan and Szegedy). This lower bound has many applications in complexity theory. Proving a better lower bound, for an explicit function, is a major open problem. Based on the result of BNS, Chung gave a sufficient criterion for a function to have large multipartycommunication complexity (up to \Omega\Gamma n=2 k )). In this paper, we use some of the ideas of BNS, and Chung, together with some new ideas, resulting in a new (easier and more modular) proof for the results of BNS and Chung. This gives a simpler way to prove lower bounds for the multipartycommunicationcomplexity of a function. 1 MultiParty Communication Complexity Multiparty co...
Simultaneous Messages vs. Communication
"... In the multiparty communication game introduced by Chandra, Furst, and Lipton [CFL] (1983), k players wish to evaluate collaboratively a function f(x0 , ..., xk\Gamma1 ) for which player i sees all inputs except x i : The players have unlimited computational power. The objective is to minimize the a ..."
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Cited by 27 (3 self)
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In the multiparty communication game introduced by Chandra, Furst, and Lipton [CFL] (1983), k players wish to evaluate collaboratively a function f(x0 , ..., xk\Gamma1 ) for which player i sees all inputs except x i : The players have unlimited computational power. The objective is to minimize the amount of communication. We consider a restricted version of the multiparty communication game which we call the simultaneous messages model. The difference is that in this model, each of the k players simultaneously sends a message to a referee, who sees none of the input. The referee then announces the function value. We demonstrate an exponential gap between the Simultaneous Messages and the Communication models for up to (log n) 1\Gammaffl players, for any ffl ? 0: The separation is obtained by comparing the respective complexities of the generalized addressing function, GAFG;k , in each model. In addition, we give a nontrivial protocol for GAFG;k for G = Z t 2 ; which is very eff...
Lower bounds for approximations by low degree polynomials over Zm
, 2001
"... Abstract We use a Ramseytheoretic argument to obtain the firstlower bounds for approximations over Zm by nonlinearpolynomials: ffl A degree2 polynomial over Zm (m odd) mustdiffer from the parity function on at least a ..."
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Cited by 27 (0 self)
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Abstract We use a Ramseytheoretic argument to obtain the firstlower bounds for approximations over Zm by nonlinearpolynomials: ffl A degree2 polynomial over Zm (m odd) mustdiffer from the parity function on at least a