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Rewriting Logic as a Logical and Semantic Framework
, 1993
"... Rewriting logic [72] is proposed as a logical framework in which other logics can be represented, and as a semantic framework for the specification of languages and systems. Using concepts from the theory of general logics [70], representations of an object logic L in a framework logic F are und ..."
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Cited by 147 (52 self)
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Rewriting logic [72] is proposed as a logical framework in which other logics can be represented, and as a semantic framework for the specification of languages and systems. Using concepts from the theory of general logics [70], representations of an object logic L in a framework logic F are understood as mappings L ! F that translate one logic into the other in a conservative way. The ease with which such maps can be defined for a number of quite different logics of interest, including equational logic, Horn logic with equality, linear logic, logics with quantifiers, and any sequent calculus presentation of a logic for a very general notion of "sequent," is discussed in detail. Using the fact that rewriting logic is reflective, it is often possible to reify inside rewriting logic itself a representation map L ! RWLogic for the finitely presentable theories of L. Such a reification takes the form of a map between the abstract data types representing the finitary theories of...
Solution of the Robbins Problem
 Journal of Automated Reasoning
, 1997
"... . In this article we show that the three equations known as commutativity, associativity, and the Robbins equation are a basis for the variety of Boolean algebras. The problem was posed by Herbert Robbins in the 1930s. The proof was found automatically by EQP, a theoremproving program for equationa ..."
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Cited by 130 (3 self)
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. In this article we show that the three equations known as commutativity, associativity, and the Robbins equation are a basis for the variety of Boolean algebras. The problem was posed by Herbert Robbins in the 1930s. The proof was found automatically by EQP, a theoremproving program for equational logic. We present the proof and the search strategies that enabled the program to find the proof. Key words: Associativecommutative unification, Boolean algebra, EQP, equational logic, paramodulation, Robbins algebra, Robbins problem. 1. Introduction This article contains the answer to the Robbins question of whether all Robbins algebras are Boolean. The answer is yes, all Robbins algebras are Boolean. The proof that answers the question was found by EQP, an automated theoremproving program for equational logic. In 1933, E. V. Huntington presented the following three equations as a basis for Boolean algebra [6, 5]: x + y = y + x, (commutativity) (x + y) + z = x + (y + z), (associativit...
Theorem Proving with Ordering and Equality Constrained Clauses
 Journal of Symbolic Computation
, 1995
"... constraint strategies and saturation Given a signature F , below we denote by S the set of all clauses built over F , and similarly by C the set of all constraints, and by EC the set of all equality constraints (which is a subset of C). Definition 3.1. An inference rule IR is a mapping of ntuples ..."
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Cited by 74 (19 self)
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constraint strategies and saturation Given a signature F , below we denote by S the set of all clauses built over F , and similarly by C the set of all constraints, and by EC the set of all equality constraints (which is a subset of C). Definition 3.1. An inference rule IR is a mapping of ntuples of clauses to sets of triples containing a clause, a constraint and an equality constraint: IR : S n \Gamma! P(hS; C; ECi) An inference system is a set of inference rules. Definition 3.2. A constraint inheritance strategy is a function mapping a clause, two constraints and an equality constraint to a clause and a constraint: H : S \Theta C \Theta C \Theta EC \Gamma! S \Theta C Inference systems and constraint inheritance strategies are combined to produce inferences in the usual sense: given constrained clauses C 1 [[T 1 ]]; : : : ; Cn [[T n ]], we obtain a conclusion C [[T ]] as follows. Applying an inference rule to C 1 ; : : : ; Cn we obtain a triple hD; OT;ET i. Then the constraint...
Basic Paramodulation
 Information and Computation
, 1995
"... We introduce a class of restrictions for the ordered paramodulation and superposition calculi (inspired by the basic strategy for narrowing), in which paramodulation inferences are forbidden at terms introduced by substitutions from previous inference steps. In addition we introduce restrictions bas ..."
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Cited by 68 (11 self)
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We introduce a class of restrictions for the ordered paramodulation and superposition calculi (inspired by the basic strategy for narrowing), in which paramodulation inferences are forbidden at terms introduced by substitutions from previous inference steps. In addition we introduce restrictions based on term selection rules and redex orderings, which are general criteria for delimiting the terms which are available for inferences. These refinements are compatible with standard ordering restrictions and are complete without paramodulation into variables or using functional reflexivity axioms. We prove refutational completeness in the context of deletion rules, such as simplification by rewriting (demodulation) and subsumption, and of techniques for eliminating redundant inferences.
ACsuperposition with constraints: No ACunifiers needed
 Proceedings 12th International Conference on Automated Deduction
, 1990
"... We prove the completeness of (basic) deduction strategies with constrained clauses modulo associativity and commutativity (AC). Here each inference generates one single conclusion with an additional equality s = AC t in its constraint (instead of one conclusion for each minimal ACunifier, i.e. expo ..."
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Cited by 29 (5 self)
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We prove the completeness of (basic) deduction strategies with constrained clauses modulo associativity and commutativity (AC). Here each inference generates one single conclusion with an additional equality s = AC t in its constraint (instead of one conclusion for each minimal ACunifier, i.e. exponentially many). Furthermore, computing ACunifiers is not needed at all. A clause C [[ T ]] is redundant if the constraint T is not ACunifiable. If C is the empty clause this has to be decided to know whether C [[ T ]] denotes an inconsistency. In all other cases any sound method to detect unsatisfiable constraints can be used. 1 Introduction Some fundamental ideas on applying symbolic constraints to theorem proving were given in [KKR90], where a constrained clause is a shorthand for its (infinite) set of ground instances satisfying the constraint. In a constrained equation f(x) ' a [[ x = g(y) ]], the equality `=' of the constraint is usually interpreted in T (F) (syntactic equality), ...
33 Basic Test Problems: A Practical Evaluation of Some Paramodulation Strategies
, 1996
"... Introduction Many researchers who study the theoretical aspects of inference systems believe that if inference rule A is complete and more restrictive than inference rule B, then the use of A will lead more quickly to proofs than will the use of B. The literature contains statements of the sort "ou ..."
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Cited by 24 (5 self)
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Introduction Many researchers who study the theoretical aspects of inference systems believe that if inference rule A is complete and more restrictive than inference rule B, then the use of A will lead more quickly to proofs than will the use of B. The literature contains statements of the sort "our rule is complete and it heavily prunes the search space; therefore it is efficient". 2 These positions are highly questionable and indicate that the authors have little or no experience with the practical use of automated inference systems. Restrictive rules (1) can block short, easytofind proofs, (2) can block proofs involving simple clauses, the type of clause on which many practical searches focus, (3) can require weakening of redundancy control such as subsumption and demodulation, and (4) can require the use of complex checks in deciding whether such rules should be applied. The only way to determ
Automatic Proofs and Counterexamples for Some Ortholattice Identities
 Information Processing Letters
, 1998
"... This note answers questions on whether three identities known to hold for orthomodular lattices are true also for ortholattices. One identity is shown to fail by MACE, a program that searches for counterexamples, an the other two are proved to hold by EQP, an equational theorem prover. The problems, ..."
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Cited by 22 (2 self)
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This note answers questions on whether three identities known to hold for orthomodular lattices are true also for ortholattices. One identity is shown to fail by MACE, a program that searches for counterexamples, an the other two are proved to hold by EQP, an equational theorem prover. The problems, from work in quantum logic, were given to us by Norman Megill. Keywords: Automatic theorem proving, ortholattice, quantum logic, theory of computation. 1 Introduction An ortholattice is an algebra with a binary operation (join) and a unary operation 0 (complement) satisfying the following (independent) set of identities. x y = (x 0 y 0 ) 0 (definition of meet) x y = y x (x y) z = x (y z) x (x y) = x x 00 = x x (y y 0 ) = y y 0 Supported by the Mathematical, Information, and Computational Sciences Division subprogram of the Office of Computational and Technology Research, U.S. Department of Energy, under Contract W31109Eng38. From these identities one can...
Ordering Constraints on Trees
 Colloquium on Trees in Algebra and Programming
, 1994
"... . We survey recent results about ordering constraints on trees and discuss their applications. Our main interest lies in the family of recursive path orderings which enjoy the properties of being total, wellfounded and compatible with the tree constructors. The paper includes some new results, in p ..."
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Cited by 21 (1 self)
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. We survey recent results about ordering constraints on trees and discuss their applications. Our main interest lies in the family of recursive path orderings which enjoy the properties of being total, wellfounded and compatible with the tree constructors. The paper includes some new results, in particular the undecidability of the theory of lexicographic path orderings in case of a nonunary signature. 1 Symbolic Constraints Constraints on trees are becoming popular in automated theorem proving, logic programming and in other fields thanks to their potential to represent large or even infinite sets of formulae in a nice and compact way. More precisely, a symbolic constraint system, also called a constraint system on trees, consists of a fragment of firstorder logic over a set of predicate symbols P and a set of function symbols F , together with a fixed interpretation of the predicate symbols in the algebra of finite trees T (F) (or sometimes the algebra of infinite trees I(F)) ov...
What You Always Wanted to Know About Rigid EUnification
 Journal of Automated Reasoning
, 1996
"... This paper solves an open problem posed by a number of researchers: the construction of a complete calculus for matrixbased methods with rigid Eunification. The use of rigid E unification and simultaneous rigid Eunification for such methods has been proposed in (Gallier et al., 1987). After our ..."
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Cited by 20 (7 self)
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This paper solves an open problem posed by a number of researchers: the construction of a complete calculus for matrixbased methods with rigid Eunification. The use of rigid E unification and simultaneous rigid Eunification for such methods has been proposed in (Gallier et al., 1987). After our proof of the undecidability of simultaneous rigid Eunification (Degtyarev and Voronkov, 1996e) it has become clear that one should look for more refined techniques to deal with equality in matrixbased methods. In this article, we define a complete proof procedure for firstorder logic with equality based on an incomplete but terminating procedure for rigid Eunification. Our approach is applicable to the connection method and the tableau method and illustrated on the tableau method.