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61
Type inference and semiunification
 In Proceedings of the ACM Conference on LISP and Functional Programming (LFP ) (Snowbird
, 1988
"... In the last ten years declarationfree programming languages with a polymorphic typing discipline (ML, B) have been developed to approximate the flexibility and conciseness of dynamically typed languages (LISP, SETL) while retaining the safety and execution efficiency of conventional statically type ..."
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Cited by 25 (6 self)
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In the last ten years declarationfree programming languages with a polymorphic typing discipline (ML, B) have been developed to approximate the flexibility and conciseness of dynamically typed languages (LISP, SETL) while retaining the safety and execution efficiency of conventional statically typed languages (Algol68, Pascal). These polymorphic languages can be type checked at compile time, yet allow functions whose arguments range over a variety of types. We investigate several polymorphic type systems, the most powerful of which, termed MilnerMycroft Calculus, extends the socalled letpolymorphism found in, e.g., ML with a polymorphic typing rule for recursive definitions. We show that semiunification, the problem of solving inequalities over firstorder terms, characterizes type checking in the MilnerMycroft Calculus to polynomial time, even in the restricted case where nested definitions are disallowed. This permits us to extend some infeasibility results for related combinatorial problems to type inference and to correct several claims and statements in the literature. We prove the existence of unique most general solutions of term inequalities, called most general semiunifiers, and present an algorithm for computing them that terminates for all known inputs due to a novel “extended occurs check”. We conjecture this algorithm to be
The Discrete Objects in the Effective Topos
 Proc. London Math. Soc
, 1990
"... The original aim of this paper was to give a rather quick and undemanding proof that the effective topos contains two nontrivial small (i.e. internal) full subcategories which are closed under all small limits in the topos (and hence in particular are internally complete). The interest in such subc ..."
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Cited by 24 (6 self)
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The original aim of this paper was to give a rather quick and undemanding proof that the effective topos contains two nontrivial small (i.e. internal) full subcategories which are closed under all small limits in the topos (and hence in particular are internally complete). The interest in such subcategories arises from
Proof Transformations in HigherOrder Logic
, 1987
"... We investigate the problem of translating between different styles of proof systems in higherorder logic: analytic proofs which are well suited for automated theorem proving, and nonanalytic deductions which are well suited for the mathematician. Analytic proofs are represented as expansion proofs, ..."
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Cited by 21 (5 self)
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We investigate the problem of translating between different styles of proof systems in higherorder logic: analytic proofs which are well suited for automated theorem proving, and nonanalytic deductions which are well suited for the mathematician. Analytic proofs are represented as expansion proofs, H, a form of the sequent calculus we define, nonanalytic proofs are represented by natural deductions. A nondeterministic translation algorithm between expansion proofs and Hdeductions is presented and its correctness is proven. We also present an algorithm for translation in the other direction and prove its correctness. A cutelimination algorithm for expansion proofs is given and its partial correctness is proven. Strong termination of this algorithm remains a conjecture for the full higherorder system, but is proven for the firstorder fragment. We extend the translations to a nonanalytic proof system which contains a primitive notion of equality, while leaving the notion of expansion proof unaltered. This is possible, since a nonextensional equality is definable in our system of type theory. Next we extend analytic and nonanalytic proof systems and the translations between them to include extensionality. Finally, we show how the methods and notions used so far apply to the problem of translating expansion proofs into natural deductions. Much care is taken to specify this translation in a
Computational Foundations of Basic Recursive Function Theory
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 1988
"... The theory of computability, or basic recursive function theory as it is often called, is usually motivated and developed using Church's Thesis. Here we show that there is an alternative computability theory in which some of the basic results on unsolvability become more absolute, results on complet ..."
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Cited by 20 (7 self)
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The theory of computability, or basic recursive function theory as it is often called, is usually motivated and developed using Church's Thesis. Here we show that there is an alternative computability theory in which some of the basic results on unsolvability become more absolute, results on completeness become simpler, and many of the central concepts become more abstract. In this approach computations are viewed as mathematical objects, and the major theorems in recursion theory may be classified according to which axioms about computation are needed to prove them. The theory is a typed theory of functions over the natural numbers, and there are unsolvable problems in this setting independent of the existence of indexings. The unsolvability results are interpreted to show that the partial function concept, so important in computer science, serves to distinguish between classical and constructive type theories (in a different way than does the decidability concept as expressed in the ...
Higher Order Logic
 In Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming
, 1994
"... Contents 1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 2 The expressive power of second order Logic : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.1 The language of second order logic : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.2 Expressing size : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4 2.3 Definin ..."
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Cited by 19 (0 self)
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Contents 1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 2 The expressive power of second order Logic : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.1 The language of second order logic : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.2 Expressing size : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4 2.3 Defining data types : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 6 2.4 Describing processes : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8 2.5 Expressing convergence using second order validity : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9 2.6 Truth definitions: the analytical hierarchy : : : : : : : : 10 2.7 Inductive definitions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13 3 Canonical semantics of higher order logic : : : : : : : : : : : : 15 3.1 Tarskian semantics of second order logic : : : : : : : : : 15 3.2 Function and re
Computation with classical sequents
 MATHEMATICAL STRUCTURES OF COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 2008
"... X is an untyped continuationstyle formal language with a typed subset which provides a CurryHoward isomorphism for a sequent calculus for implicative classical logic. X can also be viewed as a language for describing nets by composition of basic components connected by wires. These features make X ..."
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Cited by 16 (16 self)
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X is an untyped continuationstyle formal language with a typed subset which provides a CurryHoward isomorphism for a sequent calculus for implicative classical logic. X can also be viewed as a language for describing nets by composition of basic components connected by wires. These features make X an expressive platform on which algebraic objects and many different (applicative) programming paradigms can be mapped. In this paper we will present the syntax and reduction rules for X and in order to demonstrate the expressive power of X, we will show how elaborate calculi can be embedded, like the λcalculus, Bloo and Rose’s calculus of explicit substitutions λx, Parigot’s λµ and Curien and Herbelin’s λµ ˜µ.
A Tutorial on Using PVS for Hardware Verification
 Proc. 2nd International Conference on Theorem Provers in Circuit Design (TPCD94), volume 901 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 1995
"... PVS stands for "Prototype Verification System." It consists of a specification language integrated with support tools and a theorem prover. PVS tries to provide the mechanization needed to apply formal methods both rigorously and productively. This tutorial serves to introduce PVS and its use in the ..."
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Cited by 15 (0 self)
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PVS stands for "Prototype Verification System." It consists of a specification language integrated with support tools and a theorem prover. PVS tries to provide the mechanization needed to apply formal methods both rigorously and productively. This tutorial serves to introduce PVS and its use in the context of hardware verification. In the first section, we briefly sketch the purposes for which PVS is intended and the rationale behind its design, mention some of the uses that we and others are making of it. We give an overview of the PVS specification language and proof checker. The PVS language, system, and theorem prover each have their own reference manuals, which you will need to study in order to make productive use of the system. A pocket reference card, summarizing all the features of the PVS language, system, and prover is also available. The purpose of this tutorial is not to describe in detail the features of PVS and how to use the system. Rather, its purpose is to...
Syntax for free: Representing syntax with binding using parametricity
 OF LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 2009
"... We show that, in a parametric model of polymorphism, the type ∀α.((α → α) → α) → (α → α → α) → α is isomorphic to closed de Bruijn terms. That is, the type of closed higherorder abstract syntax terms is isomorphic to a concrete representation. To demonstrate the proof we have constructed a mode ..."
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Cited by 14 (5 self)
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We show that, in a parametric model of polymorphism, the type ∀α.((α → α) → α) → (α → α → α) → α is isomorphic to closed de Bruijn terms. That is, the type of closed higherorder abstract syntax terms is isomorphic to a concrete representation. To demonstrate the proof we have constructed a model of parametric polymorphism inside the Coq proof assistant. The proof of the theorem requires parametricity over Kripke relations. We also investigate some variants of this representation.