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377
On the optimality of the simple Bayesian classifier under zeroone loss
 MACHINE LEARNING
, 1997
"... The simple Bayesian classifier is known to be optimal when attributes are independent given the class, but the question of whether other sufficient conditions for its optimality exist has so far not been explored. Empirical results showing that it performs surprisingly well in many domains containin ..."
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Cited by 805 (27 self)
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The simple Bayesian classifier is known to be optimal when attributes are independent given the class, but the question of whether other sufficient conditions for its optimality exist has so far not been explored. Empirical results showing that it performs surprisingly well in many domains containing clear attribute dependences suggest that the answer to this question may be positive. This article shows that, although the Bayesian classifier’s probability estimates are only optimal under quadratic loss if the independence assumption holds, the classifier itself can be optimal under zeroone loss (misclassification rate) even when this assumption is violated by a wide margin. The region of quadraticloss optimality of the Bayesian classifier is in fact a secondorder infinitesimal fraction of the region of zeroone optimality. This implies that the Bayesian classifier has a much greater range of applicability than previously thought. For example, in this article it is shown to be optimal for learning conjunctions and disjunctions, even though they violate the independence assumption. Further, studies in artificial domains show that it will often outperform more powerful classifiers for common training set sizes and numbers of attributes, even if its bias is a priori much less appropriate to the domain. This article’s results also imply that detecting attribute dependence is not necessarily the best way to extend the Bayesian classifier, and this is also verified empirically.
Beyond Independence: Conditions for the Optimality of the Simple Bayesian Classifier
"... The simple Bayesian classifier (SBC) is commonly thought to assume that attributes are independent given the class, but this is apparently contradicted by the surprisingly good performance it exhibits in many domains that contain clear attribute dependences. No explanation for this has been proposed ..."
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Cited by 353 (8 self)
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The simple Bayesian classifier (SBC) is commonly thought to assume that attributes are independent given the class, but this is apparently contradicted by the surprisingly good performance it exhibits in many domains that contain clear attribute dependences. No explanation for this has been proposed so far. In this paper we show that the SBC does not in fact assume attribute independence, and can be optimal even when this assumption is violated by a wide margin. The key to this finding lies in the distinction between classification and probability estimation: correct classification can be achieved even when the probability estimates used contain large errors. We show that the previouslyassumed region of optimality of the SBC is a secondorder infinitesimal fraction of the actual one. This is followed by the derivation of several necessary and several sufficient conditions for the optimality of the SBC. For example, the SBC is optimal for learning arbitrary conjunctions and disjunctions, even though they violate the independence assumption. The paper also reports empirical evidence of the SBC's competitive performance in domains containing substantial degrees of attribute dependence.
CPAR: Classification based on Predictive Association Rules
, 2003
"... Recent studies in data mining have proposed a new classification approach, called associative classification, which, according to several reports, such as [7, 6], achieves higher classification accuracy than traditional classification approaches such as C4.5. However, the approach also su#ers from t ..."
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Cited by 195 (3 self)
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Recent studies in data mining have proposed a new classification approach, called associative classification, which, according to several reports, such as [7, 6], achieves higher classification accuracy than traditional classification approaches such as C4.5. However, the approach also su#ers from two major deficiencies: (1) it generates a very large number of association rules, which leads to high processing overhead; and (2) its confidencebased rule evaluation measure may lead to overfitting.
Data Mining using MLC++: A Machine Learning Library in C++
 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TOOLS
, 1997
"... Data mining algorithmsincluding machine learning, statistical analysis, and pattern recognition techniques can greatly improve our understanding of data warehouses that are now becoming more widespread. In this paper, we focus on classification algorithms and review the need for multiple classificat ..."
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Cited by 173 (20 self)
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Data mining algorithmsincluding machine learning, statistical analysis, and pattern recognition techniques can greatly improve our understanding of data warehouses that are now becoming more widespread. In this paper, we focus on classification algorithms and review the need for multiple classification algorithms. We describe a system called MLC++ , which was designed to help choose the appropriate classification algorithm for a given dataset by making it easy to compare the utility of different algorithms on a specific dataset of interest. MLC ++ not only provides a workbench for such comparisons, but also provides a library of C ++ classes to aid in the development of new algorithms, especially hybrid algorithms and multistrategy algorithms. Such algorithms are generally hard to code from scratch. We discuss design issues, interfaces to other programs, and visualization of the resulting classifiers. 1 Introduction Data warehouses containing massive amounts of data have been b...
Separateandconquer rule learning
 Artificial Intelligence Review
, 1999
"... This paper is a survey of inductive rule learning algorithms that use a separateandconquer strategy. This strategy can be traced back to the AQ learning system and still enjoys popularity as can be seen from its frequent use in inductive logic programming systems. We will put this wide variety of ..."
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Cited by 164 (29 self)
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This paper is a survey of inductive rule learning algorithms that use a separateandconquer strategy. This strategy can be traced back to the AQ learning system and still enjoys popularity as can be seen from its frequent use in inductive logic programming systems. We will put this wide variety of algorithms into a single framework and analyze them along three different dimensions, namely their search, language and overfitting avoidance biases.
Mining the most interesting rules
 In Proceedings of the Fifth ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining
, 1999
"... Several algorithms have been proposed for finding the “best, ” “optimal, ” or “most interesting ” rule(s) in a database according to a variety of metrics including confidence, support, gain, chisquared value, gini, entropy gain, laplace, lift, and conviction. In this paper, we show that the best ..."
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Cited by 164 (1 self)
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Several algorithms have been proposed for finding the “best, ” “optimal, ” or “most interesting ” rule(s) in a database according to a variety of metrics including confidence, support, gain, chisquared value, gini, entropy gain, laplace, lift, and conviction. In this paper, we show that the best rule according to any of these metrics must reside along a support/confidence border. Further, in the case of conjunctive rule mining within categorical data, the number of rules along this border is conveniently small, and can be mined efftciently from a variety of realworld datasets. We also show how this concept can be generalized to mine all rules that are best according to any of these criteria with respect to an arbitrary subset of the population of interest. We argue that by returning a broader set of rules than previous algorithms, our techniques allow for improved insight into the data and support more userinteraction in the optimized rulemining process. 1.
Tree Induction for Probabilitybased Ranking
, 2002
"... Tree induction is one of the most effective and widely used methods for building classification models. However, many applications require cases to be ranked by the probability of class membership. Probability estimation trees (PETs) have the same attractive features as classification trees (e.g., c ..."
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Cited by 158 (4 self)
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Tree induction is one of the most effective and widely used methods for building classification models. However, many applications require cases to be ranked by the probability of class membership. Probability estimation trees (PETs) have the same attractive features as classification trees (e.g., comprehensibility, accuracy and efficiency in high dimensions and on large data sets). Unfortunately, decision trees have been found to provide poor probability estimates. Several techniques have been proposed to build more accurate PETs, but, to our knowledge, there has not been a systematic experimental analysis of which techniques actually improve the probabilitybased rankings, and by how much. In this paper we first discuss why the decisiontree representation is not intrinsically inadequate for probability estimation. Inaccurate probabilities are partially the result of decisiontree induction algorithms that focus on maximizing classification accuracy and minimizing tree size (for example via reducederror pruning). Larger trees can be better for probability estimation, even if the extra size is superfluous for accuracy maximization. We then present the results of a comprehensive set of experiments, testing some straghtforward methods for improving probabilitybased rankings. We show that using a simple, common smoothing methodthe Laplace correctionuniformly improves probabilitybased rankings. In addition, bagging substantioJly improves the rankings, and is even more effective for this purpose than for improving accuracy. We conclude that PETs, with these simple modifications, should be considered when rankings based on classmembership probability are required.
Incremental Reduced Error Pruning
, 1994
"... This paper outlines some problems that may occur with Reduced Error Pruning in Inductive Logic Programming , most notably efficiency. Thereafter a new method, Incremental Reduced Error Pruning , is proposed that attempts to address all of these problems. Experiments show that in many noisy domains t ..."
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Cited by 152 (23 self)
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This paper outlines some problems that may occur with Reduced Error Pruning in Inductive Logic Programming , most notably efficiency. Thereafter a new method, Incremental Reduced Error Pruning , is proposed that attempts to address all of these problems. Experiments show that in many noisy domains this method is much more efficient than alternative algorithms, along with a slight gain in accuracy. However, the experiments show as well that the use of this algorithm cannot be recommended for domains with a very specific concept description. OEFAITR9409 1 Introduction Being able to deal with noisy data is a must for algorithms that are meant to learn concepts in realworld domains. Significant effort has gone into investigating the effect of noisy data on decision tree learning algorithms (see e.g. [Quinlan, 1993, Breiman et al., 1984]). Not surprisingly, noise handling methods have also entered the emerging field of Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) [Muggleton, 1992]. Linus [Lavr...
Interestingness measures for data mining: a survey
 ACM Computing Surveys
"... Interestingness measures play an important role in data mining, regardless of the kind of patterns being mined. These measures are intended for selecting and ranking patterns according to their potential interest to the user. Good measures also allow the time and space costs of the mining process to ..."
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Cited by 151 (2 self)
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Interestingness measures play an important role in data mining, regardless of the kind of patterns being mined. These measures are intended for selecting and ranking patterns according to their potential interest to the user. Good measures also allow the time and space costs of the mining process to be reduced. This survey reviews the interestingness measures for rules and summaries, classifies them from several perspectives, compares their properties, identifies their roles in the data mining process, gives strategies for selecting appropriate measures for applications, and identifies opportunities for future research in this area.
Error Reduction through Learning Multiple Descriptions
, 1996
"... . Learning multiple descriptions for each class in the data has been shown to reduce generalization error but the amount of error reduction varies greatly from domain to domain. This paper presents a novel empirical analysis that helps to understand this variation. Our hypothesis is that the amount ..."
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Cited by 146 (3 self)
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. Learning multiple descriptions for each class in the data has been shown to reduce generalization error but the amount of error reduction varies greatly from domain to domain. This paper presents a novel empirical analysis that helps to understand this variation. Our hypothesis is that the amount of error reduction is linked to the "degree to which the descriptions for a class make errors in a correlated manner." We present a precise and novel definition for this notion and use twentynine data sets to show that the amount of observed error reduction is negatively correlated with the degree to which the descriptions make errors in a correlated manner. We empirically show that it is possible to learn descriptions that make less correlated errors in domains in which many ties in the search evaluation measure (e.g. information gain) are experienced during learning. The paper also presents results that help to understand when and why multiple descriptions are a help (irrelevant attribute...