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241
The Foundation of a Generic Theorem Prover
 Journal of Automated Reasoning
, 1989
"... Isabelle [28, 30] is an interactive theorem prover that supports a variety of logics. It represents rules as propositions (not as functions) and builds proofs by combining rules. These operations constitute a metalogic (or `logical framework') in which the objectlogics are formalized. Isabell ..."
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Cited by 433 (47 self)
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Isabelle [28, 30] is an interactive theorem prover that supports a variety of logics. It represents rules as propositions (not as functions) and builds proofs by combining rules. These operations constitute a metalogic (or `logical framework') in which the objectlogics are formalized. Isabelle is now based on higherorder logic  a precise and wellunderstood foundation. Examples illustrate use of this metalogic to formalize logics and proofs. Axioms for firstorder logic are shown sound and complete. Backwards proof is formalized by metareasoning about objectlevel entailment. Higherorder logic has several practical advantages over other metalogics. Many proof techniques are known, such as Huet's higherorder unification procedure. Key words: higherorder logic, higherorder unification, Isabelle, LCF, logical frameworks, metareasoning, natural deduction Contents 1 History and overview 2 2 The metalogic M 4 2.1 Syntax of the metalogic ......................... 4 2.2 ...
Fresh Logic
 Journal of Applied Logic
, 2007
"... Abstract. The practice of firstorder logic is replete with metalevel concepts. Most notably there are metavariables ranging over formulae, variables, and terms, and properties of syntax such as alphaequivalence, captureavoiding substitution and assumptions about freshness of variables with resp ..."
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Cited by 193 (23 self)
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Abstract. The practice of firstorder logic is replete with metalevel concepts. Most notably there are metavariables ranging over formulae, variables, and terms, and properties of syntax such as alphaequivalence, captureavoiding substitution and assumptions about freshness of variables with respect to metavariables. We present oneandahalfthorder logic, in which these concepts are made explicit. We exhibit both sequent and algebraic specifications of oneandahalfthorder logic derivability, show them equivalent, show that the derivations satisfy cutelimination, and prove correctness of an interpretation of firstorder logic within it. We discuss the technicalities in a wider context as a casestudy for nominal algebra, as a logic in its own right, as an algebraisation of logic, as an example of how other systems might be treated, and also as a theoretical foundation
Multilanguage Hierarchical Logics (or: How We Can Do Without Modal Logics)
, 1994
"... MultiLanguage systems (ML systems) are formal systems allowing the use of multiple distinct logical languages. In this paper we introduce a class of ML systems which use a hierarchy of first order languages, each language containing names for the language below, and propose them as an alternative to ..."
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Cited by 187 (49 self)
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MultiLanguage systems (ML systems) are formal systems allowing the use of multiple distinct logical languages. In this paper we introduce a class of ML systems which use a hierarchy of first order languages, each language containing names for the language below, and propose them as an alternative to modal logics. The motivations of our proposal are technical, epistemological and implementational. From a technical point of view, we prove, among other things, that the set of theorems of the most common modal logics can be embedded (under the obvious bijective mapping between a modal and a first order language) into that of the corresponding ML systems. Moreover, we show that ML systems have properties not holding for modal logics and argue that these properties are justified by our intuitions. This claim is motivated by the study of how ML systems can be used in the representation of beliefs (more generally, propositional attitudes) and provability, two areas where modal logics have been extensively used. Finally, from an implementation point of view, we argue that ML systems resemble closely the current practice in the computer representation of propositional attitudes and metatheoretic theorem proving.
Constructivism and Proof Theory
, 2003
"... Introduction to the constructive point of view in the foundations of mathematics, in
particular intuitionism due to L.E.J. Brouwer, constructive recursive mathematics
due to A.A. Markov, and Bishop’s constructive mathematics. The constructive interpretation
and formalization of logic is described. F ..."
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Cited by 165 (4 self)
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Introduction to the constructive point of view in the foundations of mathematics, in
particular intuitionism due to L.E.J. Brouwer, constructive recursive mathematics
due to A.A. Markov, and Bishop’s constructive mathematics. The constructive interpretation
and formalization of logic is described. For constructive (intuitionistic)
arithmetic, Kleene’s realizability interpretation is given; this provides an example
of the possibility of a constructive mathematical practice which diverges from classical
mathematics. The crucial notion in intuitionistic analysis, choice sequence, is
briefly described and some principles which are valid for choice sequences are discussed.
The second half of the article deals with some aspects of proof theory, i.e.,
the study of formal proofs as combinatorial objects. Gentzen’s fundamental contributions
are outlined: his introduction of the socalled Gentzen systems which use
sequents instead of formulas and his result on firstorder arithmetic showing that
(suitably formalized) transfinite induction up to the ordinal "0 cannot be proved in
firstorder arithmetic.
The ProofTheory and Semantics of Intuitionistic Modal Logic
, 1994
"... Possible world semantics underlies many of the applications of modal logic in computer science and philosophy. The standard theory arises from interpreting the semantic definitions in the ordinary metatheory of informal classical mathematics. If, however, the same semantic definitions are interpret ..."
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Cited by 109 (0 self)
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Possible world semantics underlies many of the applications of modal logic in computer science and philosophy. The standard theory arises from interpreting the semantic definitions in the ordinary metatheory of informal classical mathematics. If, however, the same semantic definitions are interpreted in an intuitionistic metatheory then the induced modal logics no longer satisfy certain intuitionistically invalid principles. This thesis investigates the intuitionistic modal logics that arise in this way. Natural deduction systems for various intuitionistic modal logics are presented. From one point of view, these systems are selfjustifying in that a possible world interpretation of the modalities can be read off directly from the inference rules. A technical justification is given by the faithfulness of translations into intuitionistic firstorder logic. It is also established that, in many cases, the natural deduction systems induce wellknown intuitionistic modal logics, previously given by Hilbertstyle axiomatizations. The main benefit of the natural deduction systems over axiomatizations is their
Functional interpretations of feasibly constructive arithmetic
 Annals of Pure and Applied Logic
, 1993
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ECC, an Extended Calculus of Constructions
, 1989
"... We present a higherorder calculus ECC which can be seen as an extension of the calculus of constructions [CH88] by adding strong sum types and a fully cumulative type hierarchy. ECC turns out to be rather expressive so that mathematical theories can be abstractly described and abstract mathematics ..."
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Cited by 87 (4 self)
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We present a higherorder calculus ECC which can be seen as an extension of the calculus of constructions [CH88] by adding strong sum types and a fully cumulative type hierarchy. ECC turns out to be rather expressive so that mathematical theories can be abstractly described and abstract mathematics may be adequately formalized. It is shown that ECC is strongly normalizing and has other nice prooftheoretic properties. An !\GammaSet (realizability) model is described to show how the essential properties of the calculus can be captured settheoretically.
Contextual Reasoning
 EPISTEMOLOGIA, SPECIAL ISSUE ON I LINGUAGGI E LE MACCHINE
, 1992
"... It is widely agreed on that most cognitive processes are contextual in the sense that they depend on the environment, or context, inside which they are carried on. Even concentrating on the issue of contextuality in reasoning, many different notions of context can be found in the Artificial Intel ..."
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Cited by 81 (7 self)
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It is widely agreed on that most cognitive processes are contextual in the sense that they depend on the environment, or context, inside which they are carried on. Even concentrating on the issue of contextuality in reasoning, many different notions of context can be found in the Artificial Intelligence literature. Our intuition is that reasoning is usually performed on a subset of the global knowledge base. The notion of context is used as a means of formalizing this idea of localization. Roughly speaking, we take a context to be the set of facts used locally to prove a given goal plus the inference routines used to reason about them (which in general are different for different sets of facts). Our perspective is similar to that proposed in [McC87, McC91]. The goal of this paper is to propose an epistemologically adequate theory of reasoning with contexts. The emphasis is on motivations and intuitions, rather than on technicalities. The two basic definitions are reported i...
The Grammar and Processing of Order and Dependency: a Categorial Approach
, 1990
"... This thesis presents accounts of a range of linguistic phenomena in an extended categorial framework, and develops proposals for processing grammars set within this framework. Linguistic phenomena whose treatment we address include word order, grammatical relations and obliqueness, extraction and is ..."
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Cited by 68 (6 self)
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This thesis presents accounts of a range of linguistic phenomena in an extended categorial framework, and develops proposals for processing grammars set within this framework. Linguistic phenomena whose treatment we address include word order, grammatical relations and obliqueness, extraction and island constraints, and binding. The work is set within a flexible categorial framework which is a version of the Lambek calculus (Lambek, 1958) extended by the inclusion of additional typeforming operators whose logical behaviour allows for the characterization of some aspect of linguistic phenomena. We begin with the treatment of extraction phenomena and island constraints. An account is developed in which there are many interrelated notions of boundary, and where the sensitivity of any syntactic process to a particular class of boundaries can be addressed within the grammar. We next present a new categorial treatment of word order which factors apart the specification of the order of a h...
Distributed First Order Logics
, 1998
"... ist and Wiksell, Stockholm, 1965. [ Serafini and Ghidini, 1997 ] L. Serafini and C. Ghidini. Context Based Semantics for Federated Databases. In Proceedings of the 1st International and Interdisciplinary Conference on Modeling and Using Context (CONTEXT97), pages 3345, Rio de Jeneiro, Brazil, 199 ..."
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Cited by 61 (21 self)
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ist and Wiksell, Stockholm, 1965. [ Serafini and Ghidini, 1997 ] L. Serafini and C. Ghidini. Context Based Semantics for Federated Databases. In Proceedings of the 1st International and Interdisciplinary Conference on Modeling and Using Context (CONTEXT97), pages 3345, Rio de Jeneiro, Brazil, 1997. Also IRSTTechnical Report 960902, IRST, Trento, Italy. [ Subrahmanian, 1994 ] V.S. Subrahmanian. Amalgamating Knowledge Bases. ACM Trans. Database Syst., 19(2):291331, 1994. [ Wiederhold, 1992 ] G. Wiederhold. Mediators in the architecture of future information systems. IEEE Computer, 25(3):3849, 1992. and complete calculus for DFOL based on ML systems. Finally we have compared our formalism with other formalisms for the representation and integration of distributed knowledge and reasoning systems. Acknowledgments. We thank all the people of the Mechanized Reasoning Group of IRST and DISA for useful discussions and feedb