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Rewritingbased Techniques for Runtime Verification
"... Techniques for efficiently evaluating future time Linear Temporal Logic (abbreviated LTL) formulae on finite execution traces are presented. While the standard models of LTL are infinite traces, finite traces appear naturally when testing and/or monitoring real applications that only run for limi ..."
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Cited by 29 (1 self)
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Techniques for efficiently evaluating future time Linear Temporal Logic (abbreviated LTL) formulae on finite execution traces are presented. While the standard models of LTL are infinite traces, finite traces appear naturally when testing and/or monitoring real applications that only run for limited time periods. A finite trace variant of LTL is formally defined, together with an immediate executable semantics which turns out to be quite inefficient if used directly, via rewriting, as a monitoring procedure. Then three algorithms are investigated. First, a simple synthesis algorithm for monitors based on dynamic programming is presented; despite the e# ciency of the generated monitors, they unfortunately need to analyze the trace backwards, thus making them unusable in most practical situations. To circumvent this problem, two rewritingbased practical algorithms are further investigated, one using rewriting directly as a means for online monitoring, and the other using rewriting to generate automatalike monitors, called binary transition tree finite state machines (and abbreviated BTTFSMs). Both rewriting algorithms are implemented in Maude, an executable specification language based on a very e#cient implementation of term rewriting. The first rewriting algorithm essentially consists of a set of equations establishing an executable semantics of LTL, using a simple formula transforming approach. This algorithm is further improved to build automata onthefly via caching and reuse of rewrites (called memoization), resulting in a very e#cient and small Maude program that can be used to monitor program executions. The second rewriting algorithm builds on the first one and synthesizes provably minimal BTTFSMs from LTL formulae, which can then be used to a...
Online Efficient Predictive Safety Analysis of Multithreaded Programs
, 2004
"... We present an automated and configurable technique for runtime safety analysis of multithreaded programs which is able to predict safety violations from successful executions. Based on a formal specification of safety properties that is provided by a user, our technique enables us to automatically i ..."
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Cited by 28 (6 self)
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We present an automated and configurable technique for runtime safety analysis of multithreaded programs which is able to predict safety violations from successful executions. Based on a formal specification of safety properties that is provided by a user, our technique enables us to automatically instrument a given program and create an observer so that the program emits relevant state update events to the observer and the observer checks these updates against the safety specification. The events are stamped with dynamic vector clocks, enabling the observer to infer a causal partial order on the state updates. All event traces that are consistent with this partial order, including the actual execution trace, are then analyzed online and in parallel. A warning is issued whenever one of these potential trace violates the specification. Our technique is scalable and can provide better coverage than conventional testing but, unlike model checking, its coverage need not be exhaustive. In fact, one can tradeo# scalability and comprehensiveness: a window in the state space may be specified allowing the observer to infer some of the more likely runs; if the size of the window is 1 then only the actual execution trace is analyzed, as is the case in conventional testing; if the size of the window is then all the execution traces consistent with the actual execution trace are analyzed, as is the case in model checking.
A Formal MonitoringBased Framework for Software Development and Analysis
 In Proceedings of ICFEM’04, volume 3308 of LNCS
, 2004
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Detecting errors in multithreaded programs by generalized predictive analysis of executions
 In Proceedings of 7th IFIP International Conference on Formal Methods for Open ObjectBased Distributed Systems (FMOODS’05). LNCS
, 2005
"... Abstract. A generalized predictive analysis technique is proposed for detecting violations of safety properties from apparently successful executions of multithreaded programs. Specifically, we provide an algorithm to monitor executions and, based on observed causality, predict other schedules that ..."
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Cited by 18 (3 self)
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Abstract. A generalized predictive analysis technique is proposed for detecting violations of safety properties from apparently successful executions of multithreaded programs. Specifically, we provide an algorithm to monitor executions and, based on observed causality, predict other schedules that are compatible with the run. The technique uses a weak happensbefore relation which orders a write of a shared variable with all its subsequent reads that occur before the next write to the variable. A permutation of the observed events is a possible execution of a program if and only if it does not contradict the weak happensbefore relation. Even though an observed execution trace may not violate the given specification, our algorithm infers other possible executions (consistent with the observed execution) that violate the given specification, if such an execution exists. 1
Checking and correcting behaviors of java programs at runtime with javamop
 Electr. Notes Theor. Comput. Sci
, 2005
"... Monitoringoriented programming (MOP) is a software development and analysis technique in which monitoring plays a fundamental role. MOP users can add their favorite or domainspecific requirements specification formalisms into the framework by means of logic plugins, which essentially comprise mon ..."
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Cited by 12 (3 self)
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Monitoringoriented programming (MOP) is a software development and analysis technique in which monitoring plays a fundamental role. MOP users can add their favorite or domainspecific requirements specification formalisms into the framework by means of logic plugins, which essentially comprise monitor synthesis algorithms for properties expressed as formulae. The properties are specified together with declarations stating where and how to automatically integrate the corresponding monitor into the system, as well as what to do if the property is violated or validated. In this paper we present JavaMOP, an MOP environment for developing robust Java applications. Based upon a carefully designed specification schema and upon several logic plugins, JavaMOP allows users to specify and monitor properties which can refer not only to the current program state, but also to the entire execution trace of a program, including past and future behaviors. 1
Regularexpression derivatives reexamined
"... The derivative of a set of strings S with respect to a symbol a is the set of strings generated by stripping the leading a from the strings in S that start with a. For regular sets of strings, i.e., sets defined by regular expressions (REs), the derivative is also a regular set. In a 1964 paper, Jan ..."
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Cited by 9 (0 self)
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The derivative of a set of strings S with respect to a symbol a is the set of strings generated by stripping the leading a from the strings in S that start with a. For regular sets of strings, i.e., sets defined by regular expressions (REs), the derivative is also a regular set. In a 1964 paper, Janusz Brzozowski presented an elegant method for directly constructing a
EAGLE does Space Efficient LTL Monitoring
, 2003
"... We briefly present a rulebased framework, called EAGLE, that has been shown to be capable of defining and implementing finite trace monitoring logics, including future and past time temporal logic, extended regular expressions, realtime and metric temporal logics (MTL), interval logics, forms o ..."
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Cited by 4 (1 self)
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We briefly present a rulebased framework, called EAGLE, that has been shown to be capable of defining and implementing finite trace monitoring logics, including future and past time temporal logic, extended regular expressions, realtime and metric temporal logics (MTL), interval logics, forms of quantified temporal logics, and so on. In this paper we show how EAGLE can perform linear temporal logic (LTL) monitoring in an efficient way. For an initial formula of size m, we establish upper bounds of O(m logm) and O(m m) for the space and time complexity, respectively, of single step evaluation over an input trace. This bound is close to the lower bound O(2 # m ) for futuretime LTL presented in [17]. EAGLE has been successfully used, in both LTL and metric LTL forms, to test a realtime controller of an experimental NASA planetary rover.
EAGLE Monitors by Collecting Facts and Generating Obligations
, 2003
"... We present a rulebased framework, called EAGLE, that has been shown to be capable of defining and implementing a range of finite trace monitoring logics, including future and past time temporal logic, extended regular expressions, realtime and metric temporal logics, interval logics, forms of ..."
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Cited by 4 (0 self)
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We present a rulebased framework, called EAGLE, that has been shown to be capable of defining and implementing a range of finite trace monitoring logics, including future and past time temporal logic, extended regular expressions, realtime and metric temporal logics, interval logics, forms of quantified temporal logics, and so on. A monitor for an EAGLE formula checks if a finite trace of states satisfies the given formula. We present, in details, an algorithm for the synthesis of monitors for EAGLE. The algorithm is implemented as a Java application and involves novel techniques for rule definition, manipulation and execution. Monitoring is achieved on a statebystate basis avoiding any need to store the input trace of states. Our initial experiments have been successful as EAGLE detected a previously unknown bug while testing a planetary rover controller.
Generating Optimal Linear Temporal Logic Monitors by Coinduction
 Proceedings of 8th Asian Computing Science Conference (ASIAN’03), volume 2896 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2004
"... A coinductionbased technique to generate an optimal monitor from a Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) formula is presented in this paper. Such a monitor receives a sequence of states (one at a time) from a running process, checks them against a requirements specification expressed as an LTL formula, a ..."
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Cited by 4 (2 self)
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A coinductionbased technique to generate an optimal monitor from a Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) formula is presented in this paper. Such a monitor receives a sequence of states (one at a time) from a running process, checks them against a requirements specification expressed as an LTL formula, and determines whether the formula has been violated or validated. It can also say whether the LTL formula is not monitorable any longer, i.e., that the formula can in the future neither be violated nor be validated. A Web interface for the presented algorithm adapted to extended regular expressions is available.