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Tensor Decompositions and Applications
 SIAM REVIEW
, 2009
"... This survey provides an overview of higherorder tensor decompositions, their applications, and available software. A tensor is a multidimensional or N way array. Decompositions of higherorder tensors (i.e., N way arrays with N â¥ 3) have applications in psychometrics, chemometrics, signal proce ..."
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Cited by 228 (14 self)
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This survey provides an overview of higherorder tensor decompositions, their applications, and available software. A tensor is a multidimensional or N way array. Decompositions of higherorder tensors (i.e., N way arrays with N â¥ 3) have applications in psychometrics, chemometrics, signal processing, numerical linear algebra, computer vision, numerical analysis, data mining, neuroscience, graph analysis, etc. Two particular tensor decompositions can be considered to be higherorder extensions of the matrix singular value decompo
sition: CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) decomposes a tensor as a sum of rankone tensors, and the Tucker decomposition is a higherorder form of principal components analysis. There are many other tensor decompositions, including INDSCAL, PARAFAC2, CANDELINC, DEDICOM, and PARATUCK2 as well as nonnegative variants of all of the above. The Nway Toolbox and Tensor Toolbox, both for MATLAB, and the Multilinear Engine are examples of software packages for working with tensors.
Efficient MATLAB computations with sparse and factored tensors
 SIAM JOURNAL ON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING
, 2007
"... In this paper, the term tensor refers simply to a multidimensional or $N$way array, and we consider how specially structured tensors allow for efficient storage and computation. First, we study sparse tensors, which have the property that the vast majority of the elements are zero. We propose stori ..."
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Cited by 45 (13 self)
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In this paper, the term tensor refers simply to a multidimensional or $N$way array, and we consider how specially structured tensors allow for efficient storage and computation. First, we study sparse tensors, which have the property that the vast majority of the elements are zero. We propose storing sparse tensors using coordinate format and describe the computational efficiency of this scheme for various mathematical operations, including those typical to tensor decomposition algorithms. Second, we study factored tensors, which have the property that they can be assembled from more basic components. We consider two specific types: A Tucker tensor can be expressed as the product of a core tensor (which itself may be dense, sparse, or factored) and a matrix along each mode, and a Kruskal tensor can be expressed as the sum of rank1 tensors. We are interested in the case where the storage of the components is less than the storage of the full tensor, and we demonstrate that many elementary operations can be computed using only the components. All of the efficiencies described in this paper are implemented in the Tensor Toolbox for MATLAB.
Unsupervised multiway data analysis: A literature survey
 IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
, 2008
"... Multiway data analysis captures multilinear structures in higherorder datasets, where data have more than two modes. Standard twoway methods commonly applied on matrices often fail to find the underlying structures in multiway arrays. With increasing number of application areas, multiway data anal ..."
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Cited by 42 (8 self)
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Multiway data analysis captures multilinear structures in higherorder datasets, where data have more than two modes. Standard twoway methods commonly applied on matrices often fail to find the underlying structures in multiway arrays. With increasing number of application areas, multiway data analysis has become popular as an exploratory analysis tool. We provide a review of significant contributions in literature on multiway models, algorithms as well as their applications in diverse disciplines including chemometrics, neuroscience, computer vision, and social network analysis. 1.
Scalable tensor decompositions for multiaspect data mining
 In ICDM 2008: Proceedings of the 8th IEEE International Conference on Data Mining
, 2008
"... Modern applications such as Internet traffic, telecommunication records, and largescale social networks generate massive amounts of data with multiple aspects and high dimensionalities. Tensors (i.e., multiway arrays) provide a natural representation for such data. Consequently, tensor decompositi ..."
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Cited by 32 (1 self)
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Modern applications such as Internet traffic, telecommunication records, and largescale social networks generate massive amounts of data with multiple aspects and high dimensionalities. Tensors (i.e., multiway arrays) provide a natural representation for such data. Consequently, tensor decompositions such as Tucker become important tools for summarization and analysis. One major challenge is how to deal with highdimensional, sparse data. In other words, how do we compute decompositions of tensors where most of the entries of the tensor are zero. Specialized techniques are needed for computing the Tucker decompositions for sparse tensors because standard algorithms do not account for the sparsity of the data. As a result, a surprising phenomenon is observed by practitioners: Despite the fact that there is enough memory to store both the input tensors and the factorized output tensors, memory overflows occur during the tensor factorization process. To address this intermediate blowup problem, we propose MemoryEfficient Tucker (MET). Based on the available memory, MET adaptively selects the right execution strategy during the decomposition. We provide quantitative and qualitative evaluation of MET on real tensors. It achieves over 1000X space reduction without sacrificing speed; it also allows us to work with much larger tensors that were too big to handle before. Finally, we demonstrate a data mining casestudy using MET. 1
Fast Local Algorithms for Large Scale Nonnegative Matrix and Tensor Factorizations
, 2008
"... Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) and its extensions such as Nonnegative Tensor Factorization (NTF) have become prominent techniques for blind sources separation (BSS), analysis of image databases, data mining and other information retrieval and clustering applications. In this paper we propose ..."
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Cited by 26 (8 self)
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Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) and its extensions such as Nonnegative Tensor Factorization (NTF) have become prominent techniques for blind sources separation (BSS), analysis of image databases, data mining and other information retrieval and clustering applications. In this paper we propose a family of efficient algorithms for NMF/NTF, as well as sparse nonnegative coding and representation, that has many potential applications in computational neuroscience, multisensory processing, compressed sensing and multidimensional data analysis. We have developed a class of optimized local algorithms which are referred to as Hierarchical Alternating Least Squares (HALS) algorithms. For these purposes, we have performed sequential constrained minimization on a set of squared Euclidean distances. We then extend this approach to robust cost functions using the Alpha and Beta divergences and derive flexible update rules. Our algorithms are locally stable and work well for NMFbased blind source separation (BSS) not only for the overdetermined case but also for an underdetermined (overcomplete) case (i.e., for a system which has less sensors than sources) if data are sufficiently sparse. The NMF learning rules are extended and generalized for Nth order nonnegative tensor factorization (NTF). Moreover, these algorithms can be tuned to different noise statistics by adjusting a single parameter. Extensive experimental results confirm the accuracy and computational performance of the developed algorithms, especially, with usage of multilayer hierarchical NMF approach [3].
Proximity Tracking on TimeEvolving Bipartite Graphs
"... Given an authorconference network that evolves over time, which are the conferences that a given author is most closely related with, and how do they change over time? Large timeevolving bipartite graphs appear in many settings, such as social networks, cocitations, marketbasket analysis, and co ..."
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Cited by 18 (5 self)
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Given an authorconference network that evolves over time, which are the conferences that a given author is most closely related with, and how do they change over time? Large timeevolving bipartite graphs appear in many settings, such as social networks, cocitations, marketbasket analysis, and collaborative filtering. Our goal is to monitor (i) the centrality of an individual node (e.g., who are the most important authors?); and (ii) the proximity of two nodes or sets of nodes (e.g., who are the most important authors with respect to a particular conference?) Moreover, we want to do this efficiently and incrementally, and to provide “anytime ” answers. We propose pTrack and cTrack, which are based on random walk with restart, and use powerful matrix tools. Experiments on real data show that our methods are effective and efficient: the mining results agree with intuition; and we achieve up to 15∼176 times speedup, without any quality loss. 1
Closed Patterns Meet nary Relations
, 2009
"... Set pattern discovery from binary relations has been extensively studied during the last decade. In particular, many complete and efficient algorithms for frequent closed set mining are now available. Generalizing such a task to nary relations (n ≥ 2) appears as a timely challenge. It may be import ..."
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Cited by 17 (11 self)
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Set pattern discovery from binary relations has been extensively studied during the last decade. In particular, many complete and efficient algorithms for frequent closed set mining are now available. Generalizing such a task to nary relations (n ≥ 2) appears as a timely challenge. It may be important for many applications, for example, when adding the time dimension to the popular objects × features binary case. The generality of the task (no assumption being made on the relation arity or on the size of its attribute domains) makes it computationally challenging. We introduce an algorithm called DATAPEELER. From an nary relation, it extracts all closed nsets satisfying given piecewise (anti) monotonic constraints. This new class of constraints generalizes both monotonic and antimonotonic constraints. Considering the special case of ternary relations, DATAPEELER outperforms the stateoftheart algorithms CUBEMINER and TRIAS by orders of magnitude. These good performances must be granted to a new clever enumeration strategy allowing to efficiently enforce the closeness property. The relevance of the extracted closed nsets is assessed on reallife 3and 4ary relations. Beyond natural 3or 4ary relations, expanding a relation with an additional attribute can help in enforcing rather abstract constraints such as the robustness with respect to binarization. Furthermore, a collection of closed nsets is shown to be an excellent starting point
Windowbased Tensor Analysis on Highdimensional and Multiaspect Streams
"... Data stream values are often associated with multiple aspects. For example, each value from environmental sensors may have an associated type (e.g., temperature, humidity, etc) as well as location. Aside from timestamp, type and location are the two additional aspects. How to model such streams? How ..."
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Cited by 16 (3 self)
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Data stream values are often associated with multiple aspects. For example, each value from environmental sensors may have an associated type (e.g., temperature, humidity, etc) as well as location. Aside from timestamp, type and location are the two additional aspects. How to model such streams? How to simultaneously find patterns within and across the multiple aspects? How to do it incrementally in a streaming fashion? In this paper, all these problems are addressed through a general data model, tensor streams, and an effective algorithmic framework, windowbased tensor analysis (WTA). Two variations of WTA, independentwindow tensor analysis (IW) and movingwindow tensor analysis (MW), are presented and evaluated extensively on real datasets. Finally, we illustrate one important application, MultiAspect Correlation Analysis (MACA), which uses WTA and we demonstrate its effectiveness on an environmental monitoring application. 1
Robust Visual Tracking Based on Incremental Tensor Subspace Learning
"... Most existing subspace analysisbased tracking algorithms utilize a flattened vector to represent a target, resulting in a high dimensional data learning problem. Recently, subspace analysis is incorporated into the multilinear framework which offline constructs a representation of image ensembles u ..."
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Cited by 15 (1 self)
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Most existing subspace analysisbased tracking algorithms utilize a flattened vector to represent a target, resulting in a high dimensional data learning problem. Recently, subspace analysis is incorporated into the multilinear framework which offline constructs a representation of image ensembles using highorder tensors. This reduces spatiotemporal redundancies substantially, whereas the computational and memory cost is high. In this paper, we present an effective online tensor subspace learning algorithm which models the appearance changes of a target by incrementally learning a loworder tensor eigenspace representation through adaptively updating the sample mean and eigenbasis. Tracking then is led by the state inference within the framework in which a particle filter is used for propagating sample distributions over the time. A novel likelihood function, based on the tensor reconstruction error norm, is developed to measure the similarity between the test image and the learned tensor subspace model during the tracking. Theoretic analysis and experimental evaluations against a stateoftheart method demonstrate the promise and effectiveness of this algorithm. 1.
A ThreeWay Model for Collective Learning on MultiRelational Data
"... Relational learning is becoming increasingly important in many areas of application. Here, we present a novel approach to relational learning based on the factorization of a threeway tensor. We show that unlike other tensor approaches, our method is able to perform collective learning via the laten ..."
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Cited by 14 (4 self)
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Relational learning is becoming increasingly important in many areas of application. Here, we present a novel approach to relational learning based on the factorization of a threeway tensor. We show that unlike other tensor approaches, our method is able to perform collective learning via the latent components of the model and provide an efficient algorithm to compute the factorization. We substantiate our theoretical considerations regarding the collective learning capabilities of our model by the means of experiments on both a new dataset and a dataset commonly used in entity resolution. Furthermore, we show on common benchmark datasets that our approach achieves better or onpar results, if compared to current stateoftheart relational learning solutions, while it is significantly faster to compute. 1.