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222
Numerical Valuation of High Dimensional Multivariate American Securities
, 1994
"... We consider the problem of pricing an American contingent claim whose payoff depends on several sources of uncertainty. Using classical assumptions from the Arbitrage Pricing Theory, the theoretical price can be computed as the maximum over all possible early exercise strategies of the discounted ..."
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Cited by 95 (0 self)
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We consider the problem of pricing an American contingent claim whose payoff depends on several sources of uncertainty. Using classical assumptions from the Arbitrage Pricing Theory, the theoretical price can be computed as the maximum over all possible early exercise strategies of the discounted expected cash flows under the modified riskneutral information process. Several efficient numerical techniques exist for pricing American securities depending on one or few (up to 3) risk sources. They are either latticebased techniques or finite difference approximations of the BlackScholes diffusion equation. However, these methods cannot be used for highdimensional problems, since their memory requirement is exponential in the
Dynamic Scheduling of a System with Two Parallel Servers in Heavy Traffic with Resource Pooling: Asymptotic Optimality of a Threshold Policy
 Annals of Applied Probability
, 1999
"... This paper concerns a dynamic scheduling problem for a queueing system that has two streams of arrivals to infinite capacity buffers and two (nonidentical) servers working in parallel. One server can only process jobs from one buffer, whereas the other server can process jobs from either buffer. Th ..."
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Cited by 76 (5 self)
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This paper concerns a dynamic scheduling problem for a queueing system that has two streams of arrivals to infinite capacity buffers and two (nonidentical) servers working in parallel. One server can only process jobs from one buffer, whereas the other server can process jobs from either buffer. The service time distribution may depend on the buffer being served and the server providing the service. The system manager dynamically schedules waiting jobs onto available servers. We consider a parameter regime in which the system satisfies both a heavy traffic condition and a resource pooling condition. Our cost function is a mean cumulative discounted cost of holding jobs in the system, where the (undiscounted) cost per unit time is a linear function of normalized (with heavy traffic scaling) queue length. We first review the analytic solution of the Brownian control problem (formal heavy traffic approximation) for this system. We "interpret" this solution by proposing a threshold contro...
Exact Solutions to TimeDependent MDPs
 in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems
, 2000
"... We describe an extension of the Markov decision process model in which a continuous time dimension is included in the state space. This allows for the representation and exact solution of a wide range of problems in which transitions or rewards vary over time. We examine problems based on route ..."
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Cited by 55 (4 self)
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We describe an extension of the Markov decision process model in which a continuous time dimension is included in the state space. This allows for the representation and exact solution of a wide range of problems in which transitions or rewards vary over time. We examine problems based on route planning with public transportation and telescope observation scheduling. 1
On Dynamic Scheduling of a Parallel Server System with Complete Resource Pooling
 In Analysis of Communication Networks: Call Centres, Traffic and Performance
, 2000
"... scientific noncommercial use only for individuals, with permission from the authors. We consider a parallel server queueing system consisting of a bank of buffers for holding incoming jobs and a bank of flexible servers for processing these jobs. Incoming jobs are classified into one of several dif ..."
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Cited by 43 (4 self)
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scientific noncommercial use only for individuals, with permission from the authors. We consider a parallel server queueing system consisting of a bank of buffers for holding incoming jobs and a bank of flexible servers for processing these jobs. Incoming jobs are classified into one of several different classes (or buffers). Jobs within a class are processed on a firstinfirstout basis, where the processing of a given job may be performed by any server from a given (classdependent) subset of the bank of servers. The random service time of a job may depend on both its class and the server providing the service. Each job departs the system after receiving service from one server. The system manager seeks to minimize holding costs by dynamically scheduling waiting jobs to available servers. We consider a parameter regime in which the system satisfies both a heavy traffic and a complete resource pooling condition. Our cost function is an expected cumulative discounted cost of holding jobs in the system, where the (undiscounted) cost per unit time is a linear function of normalized (with heavy traffic scaling) queue length. In a prior work [40], the second author proposed a continuous review threshold control policy for use in such a parallel server system. This policy was advanced as an “interpretation ” of the analytic solution to an associated Brownian control problem (formal heavy
Markov Chain Approximations for Deterministic Control Problems with Affine Dynamics and Quadratic Cost in the Control
 SIAM J. Numer. Anal
, 1998
"... We consider the construction of Markov chain approximations for an important class of deterministic control problems. The emphasis is on the construction of schemes that can be easily implemented and which possess a number of highly desirable qualitative properties. The class of problems covered is ..."
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Cited by 40 (0 self)
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We consider the construction of Markov chain approximations for an important class of deterministic control problems. The emphasis is on the construction of schemes that can be easily implemented and which possess a number of highly desirable qualitative properties. The class of problems covered is that for which the control is affine in the dynamics and with quadratic running cost. This class covers a number of interesting application areas, including problems that arise in large deviations, risksensitive and robust control, robust filtering, and certain problems from computer vision. Examples are given, as well as a proof of convergence. 1 Introduction There are a number of deterministic optimal control problems for which a global approximation to the value function is needed. For example, in small noise risksensitive and robust nonlinear filtering [10, 15], the optimal (robust) filter is defined in terms of the value function for a calculus of variations problem in which the v...
Error bounds for monotone approximation schemes for HamiltonJacobiBellman equations
, 2007
"... We obtain nonsymmetric upper and lower bounds on the rate of convergence of general monotone approximation/numerical schemes for parabolic HamiltonJacobiBellman equations by introducing a new notion of consistency. Our results are robust and general – they improve and extend earlier results by Kry ..."
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Cited by 36 (2 self)
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We obtain nonsymmetric upper and lower bounds on the rate of convergence of general monotone approximation/numerical schemes for parabolic HamiltonJacobiBellman equations by introducing a new notion of consistency. Our results are robust and general – they improve and extend earlier results by Krylov, Barles, and Jakobsen. We apply our general results to various schemes including Crank–Nicholson type finite difference schemes, splitting methods, and the classical approximation by piecewise constant controls. In the first two cases our results are new, and in the last two cases the results are obtained by a new method which we develop here.
On the rate of convergence of finite–difference approximations for Bellman’s equations with coefficients
, 2004
"... We consider parabolic Bellman equations with Lipschitz coefficients. Error bounds of order h 1/2 for certain types of finitedifference schemes are obtained. ..."
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Cited by 31 (9 self)
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We consider parabolic Bellman equations with Lipschitz coefficients. Error bounds of order h 1/2 for certain types of finitedifference schemes are obtained.
Piecewiselinear diffusion processes
 Advances in Queueing
, 1995
"... Diffusion processes are often regarded as among the more abstruse stochastic processes, but diffusion processes are actually relatively elementary, and thus are natural first candidates to consider in queueing applications. To help demonstrate the advantages of diffusion processes, we show that ther ..."
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Cited by 27 (8 self)
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Diffusion processes are often regarded as among the more abstruse stochastic processes, but diffusion processes are actually relatively elementary, and thus are natural first candidates to consider in queueing applications. To help demonstrate the advantages of diffusion processes, we show that there is a large class of onedimensional diffusion processes for which it is possible to give convenient explicit expressions for the steadystate distribution, without writing down any partial differential equations or performing any numerical integration. We call these tractable diffusion processes piecewise linear; the drift function is piecewise linear, while the diffusion coefficient is piecewise constant. The explicit expressions for steadystate distributions in turn yield explicit expressions for longrun average costs in optimization problems, which can be analyzed with the aid of symbolic mathematics packages. Since diffusion processes have continuous sample paths, approximation is required when they are used to model discretevalued processes. We also discuss strategies for performing this approximation, and we investigate when this approximation is good for the steadystate distribution of birthanddeath processes. We show that the diffusion approximation tends to be good when the differences between the birth and death rates are small compared to the death rates.
Dynamic scheduling of a multiclass queue in the HalfinWhitt heavy traffic regime
, 2003
"... We consider a Markovian model of a multiclass queueing system in which a single large pool of servers attends to the various customer classes. Customers waiting to be served may abandon the queue, and there is a cost penalty associated with such abandonments. Service rates, abandonment rates and aba ..."
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Cited by 27 (4 self)
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We consider a Markovian model of a multiclass queueing system in which a single large pool of servers attends to the various customer classes. Customers waiting to be served may abandon the queue, and there is a cost penalty associated with such abandonments. Service rates, abandonment rates and abandonment penalties are generally different for the different classes. The problem studied is that of dynamically scheduling the various classes. We consider the HalfinWhitt heavy traffic regime, where the total arrival rate and the number of servers both become large in such a way that the system’s traffic intensity parameter approaches one. An approximating diffusion control problem is described and justified as a purely formal (i.e., non rigorous) heavy traffic limit. The HamiltonJacobiBellman equation associated with the limiting diffusion control problem is shown to have a smooth (classical) solution, and optimal controls are shown to have an extremal or “bangbang ” character. Several useful qualitative insights are derived from the mathematical analysis, including a “square root rule ” for sizing large systems and a sharp contrast between system behavior in the HalfinWhitt regime versus that observed in the “conventional ” heavy traffic regime. The latter phenomenon is illustrated by means of a numerical example having two customer classes.