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91
Improving generalization with active learning
 Machine Learning
, 1994
"... Abstract. Active learning differs from "learning from examples " in that the learning algorithm assumes at least some control over what part of the input domain it receives information about. In some situations, active learning is provably more powerful than learning from examples alone, g ..."
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Cited by 416 (1 self)
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Abstract. Active learning differs from "learning from examples " in that the learning algorithm assumes at least some control over what part of the input domain it receives information about. In some situations, active learning is provably more powerful than learning from examples alone, giving better generalization for a fixed number of training examples. In this article, we consider the problem of learning a binary concept in the absence of noise. We describe a formalism for active concept learning called selective sampling and show how it may be approximately implemented by a neural network. In selective sampling, a learner receives distribution information from the environment and queries an oracle on parts of the domain it considers "useful. " We test our implementation, called an SGnetwork, on three domains and observe significant improvement in generalization.
Learning and development in neural networks: The importance of starting small
 Cognition
, 1993
"... It is a striking fact that in humans the greatest learnmg occurs precisely at that point in time childhood when the most dramatic maturational changes also occur. This report describes possible synergistic interactions between maturational change and the ability to learn a complex domain (language ..."
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Cited by 365 (15 self)
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It is a striking fact that in humans the greatest learnmg occurs precisely at that point in time childhood when the most dramatic maturational changes also occur. This report describes possible synergistic interactions between maturational change and the ability to learn a complex domain (language), as investigated in connectionist networks. The networks are trained to process complex sentences involving relative clauses, number agreement, and several types of verb argument structure. Training fails in the case of networks which are fully formed and ‘adultlike ’ in their capacity. Training succeeds only when networks begin with limited working memory and gradually ‘mature ’ to the adult state. This result suggests that rather than being a limitation, developmental restrictions on resources may constitute a necessary prerequisite for mastering certain complex domains. Specifically, successful learning may depend on starting small.
An Evolutionary Algorithm that Constructs Recurrent Neural Networks
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NEURAL NETWORKS
"... Standard methods for inducing both the structure and weight values of recurrent neural networks fit an assumed class of architectures to every task. This simplification is necessary because the interactions between network structure and function are not well understood. Evolutionary computation, whi ..."
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Cited by 214 (14 self)
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Standard methods for inducing both the structure and weight values of recurrent neural networks fit an assumed class of architectures to every task. This simplification is necessary because the interactions between network structure and function are not well understood. Evolutionary computation, which includes genetic algorithms and evolutionary programming, is a populationbased search method that has shown promise in such complex tasks. This paper argues that genetic algorithms are inappropriate for network acquisition and describes an evolutionary program, called GNARL, that simultaneously acquires both the structure and weights for recurrent networks. This algorithm’s empirical acquisition method allows for the emergence of complex behaviors and topologies that are potentially excluded by the artificial architectural constraints imposed in standard network induction methods.
Symbolic and neural learning algorithms: an experimental comparison
 Machine Learning
, 1991
"... Abstract Despite the fact that many symbolic and neural network (connectionist) learning algorithms address the same problem of learning from classified examples, very little is known regarding their comparative strengths and weaknesses. Experiments comparing the ID3 symbolic learning algorithm with ..."
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Cited by 99 (6 self)
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Abstract Despite the fact that many symbolic and neural network (connectionist) learning algorithms address the same problem of learning from classified examples, very little is known regarding their comparative strengths and weaknesses. Experiments comparing the ID3 symbolic learning algorithm with the perception and backpropagation neural learning algorithms have been performed using five large, realworld data sets. Overall, backpropagation performs slightly better than the other two algorithms in terms of classification accuracy on new examples, but takes much longer to train. Experimental results suggest that backpropagation can work significantly better on data sets containing numerical data. Also analyzed empirically are the effects of (1) the amount of training data, (2) imperfect training examples, and (3) the encoding of the desired outputs. Backpropagation occasionally outperforms the other two systems when given relatively small amounts of training data. It is slightly more accurate than ID3 when examples are noisy or incompletely specified. Finally, backpropagation more effectively utilizes a "distributed " output encoding.
SUSTAIN: A network model of category learning
 Psychological Review
, 2004
"... SUSTAIN (Supervised and Unsupervised STratified Adaptive Incremental Network) is a model of how humans learn categories from examples. SUSTAIN initially assumes a simple category structure. If simple solutions prove inadequate and SUSTAIN is confronted with a surprising event (e.g., it is told that ..."
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Cited by 99 (13 self)
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SUSTAIN (Supervised and Unsupervised STratified Adaptive Incremental Network) is a model of how humans learn categories from examples. SUSTAIN initially assumes a simple category structure. If simple solutions prove inadequate and SUSTAIN is confronted with a surprising event (e.g., it is told that a bat is a mammal instead of a bird), SUSTAIN recruits an additional cluster to represent the surprising event. Newly recruited clusters are available to explain future events and can themselves evolve into
Extracting Comprehensible Models from Trained Neural Networks
, 1996
"... To Mom, Dad, and Susan, for their support and encouragement. ..."
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Cited by 69 (4 self)
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To Mom, Dad, and Susan, for their support and encouragement.
Constructive Algorithms for Structure Learning in Feedforward Neural Networks for Regression Problems
 IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks
, 1997
"... In this survey paper, we review the constructive algorithms for structure learning in feedforward neural networks for regression problems. The basic idea is to start with a small network, then add hidden units and weights incrementally until a satisfactory solution is found. By formulating the whole ..."
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Cited by 66 (2 self)
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In this survey paper, we review the constructive algorithms for structure learning in feedforward neural networks for regression problems. The basic idea is to start with a small network, then add hidden units and weights incrementally until a satisfactory solution is found. By formulating the whole problem as a state space search, we first describe the general issues in constructive algorithms, with special emphasis on the search strategy. A taxonomy, based on the differences in the state transition mapping, the training algorithm and the network architecture, is then presented. Keywords Constructive algorithm, structure learning, state space search, dynamic node creation, projection pursuit regression, cascadecorrelation, resourceallocating network, group method of data handling. I. Introduction A. Problems with Fixed Size Networks I N recent years, many neural network models have been proposed for pattern classification, function approximation and regression problems. Among...
A Constructive Algorithm for Training Cooperative Neural Network Ensembles
 IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks
, 2003
"... This paper presents a constructive algorithm for training cooperative neuralnetwork ensembles (CNNEs). CNNE combines ensemble architecture design with cooperative training for individual neural networks (NNs) in ensembles. Unlike most previous studies on training ensembles, CNNE puts emphasis on bo ..."
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Cited by 40 (16 self)
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This paper presents a constructive algorithm for training cooperative neuralnetwork ensembles (CNNEs). CNNE combines ensemble architecture design with cooperative training for individual neural networks (NNs) in ensembles. Unlike most previous studies on training ensembles, CNNE puts emphasis on both accuracy and diversity among individual NNs in an ensemble. In order to maintain accuracy among individual NNs, the number of hidden nodes in individual NNs are also determined by a constructive approach. Incremental training based on negative correlation is used in CNNE to train individual NNs for different numbers of training epochs. The use of negative correlation learning and different training epochs for training individual NNs reflect CNNEs emphasis on diversity among individual NNs in an ensemble. CNNE has been tested extensively on a number of benchmark problems in machine learning and neural networks, including Australian credit card assessment, breast cancer, diabetes, glass, heart disease, letter recognition, soybean, and MackeyGlass time series prediction problems. The experimental results show that CNNE can produce NN ensembles with good generalization ability.
Generative Learning Structures and Processes for Generalized Connectionist Networks
, 1991
"... Massively parallel networks of relatively simple computing elements offer an attractive and versatile framework for exploring a variety of learning structures and processes for intelligent systems. This paper briefly summarizes the popular learning structures and processes used in such networks. It ..."
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Cited by 29 (18 self)
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Massively parallel networks of relatively simple computing elements offer an attractive and versatile framework for exploring a variety of learning structures and processes for intelligent systems. This paper briefly summarizes the popular learning structures and processes used in such networks. It outlines a range of potentially more powerful alternatives for patterndirected inductive learning in such systems. It motivates and develops a class of new learning algorithms for massively parallel networks of simple computing elements. We call this class of learning processes generative for they offer a set of mechanisms for constructive and adaptive determination of the network architecture  the number of processing elements and the connectivity among them  as a function of experience. Generative learning algorithms attempt to overcome some of the limitations of some approaches to learning in networks that rely on modification of weights on the links within an otherwise fixed network t...
An iterative pruning algorithm for feedforward neural networks
 IEEE Trans. Neural. Networks
, 1997
"... Abstract — The problem of determining the proper size of an artificial neural network is recognized to be crucial, especially for its practical implications in such important issues as learning and generalization. One popular approach tackling this problem is commonly known as pruning and consists o ..."
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Cited by 28 (0 self)
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Abstract — The problem of determining the proper size of an artificial neural network is recognized to be crucial, especially for its practical implications in such important issues as learning and generalization. One popular approach tackling this problem is commonly known as pruning and consists of training a larger than necessary network and then removing unnecessary weights/nodes. In this paper, a new pruning method is developed, based on the idea of iteratively eliminating units and adjusting the remaining weights in such a way that the network performance does not worsen over the entire training set. The pruning problem is formulated in terms of solving a system of linear equations, and a very efficient conjugate gradient algorithm is used for solving it, in the leastsquares sense. The algorithm also provides a simple criterion for choosing the units to be removed, which has proved to work well in practice. The results obtained over various test problems demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Index Terms — Feedforward neural networks, generalization, hidden neurons, iterative methods, leastsquares methods, network pruning, pattern recognition, structure simplification. I.