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Algorithms for the Satisfiability (SAT) Problem: A Survey
 DIMACS Series in Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science
, 1996
"... . The satisfiability (SAT) problem is a core problem in mathematical logic and computing theory. In practice, SAT is fundamental in solving many problems in automated reasoning, computeraided design, computeraided manufacturing, machine vision, database, robotics, integrated circuit design, compute ..."
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Cited by 126 (3 self)
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. The satisfiability (SAT) problem is a core problem in mathematical logic and computing theory. In practice, SAT is fundamental in solving many problems in automated reasoning, computeraided design, computeraided manufacturing, machine vision, database, robotics, integrated circuit design, computer architecture design, and computer network design. Traditional methods treat SAT as a discrete, constrained decision problem. In recent years, many optimization methods, parallel algorithms, and practical techniques have been developed for solving SAT. In this survey, we present a general framework (an algorithm space) that integrates existing SAT algorithms into a unified perspective. We describe sequential and parallel SAT algorithms including variable splitting, resolution, local search, global optimization, mathematical programming, and practical SAT algorithms. We give performance evaluation of some existing SAT algorithms. Finally, we provide a set of practical applications of the sat...
Symbolic Analysis for Parallelizing Compilers
, 1994
"... Symbolic Domain The objects in our abstract symbolic domain are canonical symbolic expressions. A canonical symbolic expression is a lexicographically ordered sequence of symbolic terms. Each symbolic term is in turn a pair of an integer coefficient and a sequence of pairs of pointers to program va ..."
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Cited by 106 (4 self)
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Symbolic Domain The objects in our abstract symbolic domain are canonical symbolic expressions. A canonical symbolic expression is a lexicographically ordered sequence of symbolic terms. Each symbolic term is in turn a pair of an integer coefficient and a sequence of pairs of pointers to program variables in the program symbol table and their exponents. The latter sequence is also lexicographically ordered. For example, the abstract value of the symbolic expression 2ij+3jk in an environment that i is bound to (1; (( " i ; 1))), j is bound to (1; (( " j ; 1))), and k is bound to (1; (( " k ; 1))) is ((2; (( " i ; 1); ( " j ; 1))); (3; (( " j ; 1); ( " k ; 1)))). In our framework, environment is the abstract analogous of state concept; an environment is a function from program variables to abstract symbolic values. Each environment e associates a canonical symbolic value e x for each variable x 2 V ; it is said that x is bound to e x. An environment might be represented by...
Solving Polynomial Systems Using a Branch and Prune Approach
 SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis
, 1997
"... This paper presents Newton, a branch & prune algorithm to find all isolated solutions of a system of polynomial constraints. Newton can be characterized as a global search method which uses intervals for numerical correctness and for pruning the search space early. The pruning in Newton consists ..."
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Cited by 102 (7 self)
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This paper presents Newton, a branch & prune algorithm to find all isolated solutions of a system of polynomial constraints. Newton can be characterized as a global search method which uses intervals for numerical correctness and for pruning the search space early. The pruning in Newton consists in enforcing at each node of the search tree a unique local consistency condition, called boxconsistency, which approximates the notion of arcconsistency wellknown in artificial intelligence. Boxconsistency is parametrized by an interval extension of the constraint and can be instantiated to produce the HansenSegupta's narrowing operator (used in interval methods) as well as new operators which are more effective when the computation is far from a solution. Newton has been evaluated on a variety of benchmarks from kinematics, chemistry, combustion, economics, and mechanics. On these benchmarks, it outperforms the interval methods we are aware of and compares well with stateoftheart continuation methods. Limitations of Newton (e.g., a sensitivity to the size of the initial intervals on some problems) are also discussed. Of particular interest is the mathematical and programming simplicity of the method.
Interval arithmetic: From principles to implementation
 J. ACM
"... We start with a mathematical definition of a real interval as a closed, connected set of reals. Interval arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division) are likewise defined mathematically and we provide algorithms for computing these operations assuming exact real arithme ..."
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Cited by 77 (12 self)
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We start with a mathematical definition of a real interval as a closed, connected set of reals. Interval arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division) are likewise defined mathematically and we provide algorithms for computing these operations assuming exact real arithmetic. Next, we define interval arithmetic operations on intervals with IEEE 754 floating point endpoints to be sound and optimal approximations of the real interval operations and we show that the IEEE standardâ€™s specification of operations involving the signed infinities, signed zeros, and the exact/inexact flag are such as to make a correct and optimal implementation more efficient. From the resulting theorems we derive data that are sufficiently detailed to convert directly to a program for efficiently implementing the interval operations. Finally we extend these results to the case of general intervals, which are defined as connected sets of reals that are not necessarily closed. 1
Global optimization by multilevel coordinate search
 J. Global Optimization
, 1999
"... Abstract. Inspired by a method by Jones et al. (1993), we present a global optimization algorithm based on multilevel coordinate search. It is guaranteed to converge if the function is continuous in the neighborhood of a global minimizer. By starting a local search from certain good points, an impro ..."
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Cited by 74 (12 self)
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Abstract. Inspired by a method by Jones et al. (1993), we present a global optimization algorithm based on multilevel coordinate search. It is guaranteed to converge if the function is continuous in the neighborhood of a global minimizer. By starting a local search from certain good points, an improved convergence result is obtained. We discuss implementation details and give some numerical results.
Complete search in continuous global optimization and constraint satisfaction, Acta Numerica 13
, 2004
"... A chapter for ..."
Iterative Compilation in a NonLinear Optimisation Space
, 1998
"... This paper investigates the applicability of iterative search techniques in program optimisation. Iterative compilation is usually considered too expensive for general purpose computing but is applicable to embedded applications where the cost is easily amortised over the number of embedded systems ..."
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Cited by 65 (15 self)
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This paper investigates the applicability of iterative search techniques in program optimisation. Iterative compilation is usually considered too expensive for general purpose computing but is applicable to embedded applications where the cost is easily amortised over the number of embedded systems produced. This paper presents a case study, where an iterative search algorithm is used to investigate a nonlinear transformation space and find the fastest execution time within a fixed number of evaluations. By using execution time as feedback, it searches a large but restricted transformation space and shows performance improvement over existing approaches. We show that in the case of large transformation spaces, we can achieve within 0.3% of the best possible time by visiting less then 0.25% of the space using a simple algorithm and find the minimum after visiting less than 1% of the space.
Molecular Modeling Of Proteins And Mathematical Prediction Of Protein Structure
 SIAM Review
, 1997
"... . This paper discusses the mathematical formulation of and solution attempts for the socalled protein folding problem. The static aspect is concerned with how to predict the folded (native, tertiary) structure of a protein, given its sequence of amino acids. The dynamic aspect asks about the possib ..."
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Cited by 49 (5 self)
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. This paper discusses the mathematical formulation of and solution attempts for the socalled protein folding problem. The static aspect is concerned with how to predict the folded (native, tertiary) structure of a protein, given its sequence of amino acids. The dynamic aspect asks about the possible pathways to folding and unfolding, including the stability of the folded protein. From a mathematical point of view, there are several main sides to the static problem:  the selection of an appropriate potential energy function;  the parameter identification by fitting to experimental data; and  the global optimization of the potential. The dynamic problem entails, in addition, the solution of (because of multiple time scales very stiff) ordinary or stochastic differential equations (molecular dynamics simulation), or (in case of constrained molecular dynamics) of differentialalgebraic equations. A theme connecting the static and dynamic aspect is the determination and formation of...
Subdivision Direction Selection In Interval Methods For Global Optimization
 SIAM J. Numer. Anal
, 1997
"... . The role of the interval subdivision selection rule is investigated in branchandbound algorithms for global optimization. The class of rules that allow convergence for the model algorithm is characterized, and it is shown that the four rules investigated satisfy the conditions of convergence. A ..."
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Cited by 47 (18 self)
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. The role of the interval subdivision selection rule is investigated in branchandbound algorithms for global optimization. The class of rules that allow convergence for the model algorithm is characterized, and it is shown that the four rules investigated satisfy the conditions of convergence. A numerical study with a wide spectrum of test problems indicates that there are substantial differences between the rules in terms of the required CPU time, the number of function and derivative evaluations and space complexity, and two rules can provide substantial improvements in efficiency. Key words. global optimization, interval arithmetic, interval subdivision AMS subject classifications. 65K05, 90C30 Abbreviated title: Subdivision directions in interval methods. 1. Introduction. Interval subdivision methods for global optimization [7, 21] aim at providing reliable solutions to global optimization problems min x2X f(x) (1) where the objective function f : IR n ! IR is continuo...