### PRISM User’s Manual (Version 1.12)

"... The past few years have witnessed a tremendous interest in logic-based probabilistic learning as testified by the number of formalisms and systems and their applications. Logic-based probabilistic learning is a multidisciplinary research area that integrates relational or logic formalisms, probabili ..."

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The past few years have witnessed a tremendous interest in logic-based probabilistic learning as testified by the number of formalisms and systems and their applications. Logic-based probabilistic learning is a multidisciplinary research area that integrates relational or logic formalisms, probabilistic reasoning mechanisms, and machine learning and data mining principles. Logic-based probabilistic learning has found its way into many application areas including bioinformatics, diagnosis and troubleshooting, stochastic language processing, information retrieval, linkage analysis and discovery, robot control, and probabilistic constraint solving. PRISM (PRogramming In Statistical Modeling) is a logic-based language that integrates logic programming and probabilistic reasoning including parameter learning. It allows for the description of independent probabilistic choices and their consequences in general logic programs. PRISM supports parameter learning, i.e. for a given set of possibly incomplete observed data, PRISM can estimate the probability distributions to best explain the data. This power is suitable for applications such as learning parameters of stochastic grammars, training stochastic models for gene sequence analysis, game record analysis, user modeling, and obtaining probabilistic information for tuning systems performance. PRISM offers incomparable flexibility compared with specific statistical tools such as hidden Markov models (HMMs) [4, 28], probabilistic context free grammars (PCFGs) [4] and discrete Bayesian networks. PRISM employs a proof-theoretic approach to learning. It conducts learning in two phases: the first phase searches for all the explanations for the observed data, and the second phase estimates the probability distributions by using the EM algorithm. Learning from flat explanations can be exponential in both space and time. To speed up learning, the authors proposed learning from explanation graphs and using tabling to reduce redundancy in the construction of explanation graphs. The PRISM programming system is implemented on top of B-Prolog

### PRISM User’s Manual (Version 1.11.3)

"... The past few years have witnessed a tremendous interest in logic-based probabilistic learning as testified by the number of formalisms and systems and their applications. Logic-based probabilistic learning is a multidisciplinary research area that integrates relational or logic formalisms, probabili ..."

Abstract
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The past few years have witnessed a tremendous interest in logic-based probabilistic learning as testified by the number of formalisms and systems and their applications. Logic-based probabilistic learning is a multidisciplinary research area that integrates relational or logic formalisms, probabilistic reasoning mechanisms, and machine learning and data mining principles. Logic-based probabilistic learning has found its way into many application areas including bioinformatics, diagnosis and troubleshooting, stochastic language processing, information retrieval, linkage analysis and discovery, robot control, and probabilistic constraint solving. PRISM (PRogramming In Statistical Modeling) is a logic-based language that integrates logic programming and probabilistic reasoning including parameter learning. It allows for the description of independent probabilistic choices and their consequences in general logic programs. PRISM supports parameter learning, i.e. for a given set of possibly incomplete observed data, PRISM can estimate the probability distributions to best explain the data. This power is suitable for applications such as learning parameters of stochastic grammars, training stochastic models for gene sequence analysis, game record analysis, user modeling, and obtaining probabilistic information for tuning systems performance. PRISM offers incomparable flexibility compared with specific statistical tools such as hidden Markov models (HMMs) [4, 26], probabilistic context free grammars (PCFGs) [4] and discrete Bayesian networks. PRISM employs a proof-theoretic approach to learning. It conducts learning in two phases: the first phase searches for all the explanations for the observed data, and the second phase estimates the probability distributions by using the EM algorithm. Learning from flat explanations can be exponential in both space and time. To speed up learning, the authors proposed learning from explanation graphs and using tabling to reduce redundancy in the construction of explanation graphs. The PRISM programming system is implemented on top of B-Prolog

### PRISM User’s Manual (Version 1.11)

"... The past few years have witnessed a tremendous interest in logic-based probabilistic learning as testified by the number of formalisms and systems and their applications. Logic-based probabilistic learning is a multidisciplinary research area that integrates relational or logic formalisms, probabili ..."

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The past few years have witnessed a tremendous interest in logic-based probabilistic learning as testified by the number of formalisms and systems and their applications. Logic-based probabilistic learning is a multidisciplinary research area that integrates relational or logic formalisms, probabilistic reasoning mechanisms, and machine learning and data mining principles. Logic-based probabilistic learning has found its way into many application areas including bioinformatics, diagnosis and troubleshooting, stochastic language processing, information retrieval, linkage analysis and discovery, robot control, and probabilistic constraint solving. PRISM (PRogramming In Statistical Modeling) is a logic-based language that integrates logic programming and probabilistic reasoning including parameter learning. It allows for the description of independent probabilistic choices and their consequences in general logic programs. PRISM supports parameter learning, i.e. for a given set of possibly incomplete observed data, PRISM can estimate the probability distributions to best explain the data. This power is suitable for applications such as learning parameters of stochastic grammars, training stochastic models for gene sequence analysis, game record analysis, user modeling, and obtaining probabilistic information for tuning systems performance. PRISM offers incomparable flexibility compared with specific statistical tools such as hidden Markov models (HMMs) [4, 25], probabilistic context free grammars (PCFGs) [4] and discrete Bayesian networks. PRISM employs a proof-theoretic approach to learning. It conducts learning in two phases: the first phase searches for all the explanations for the observed data, and the second phase estimates the probability distributions by using the EM algorithm. Learning from flat explanations can be exponential in both space and time. To speed up learning, the authors proposed learning from explanation graphs and using tabling to reduce redundancy in the construction of explanation graphs. The PRISM programming system is implemented on top of B-Prolog

### PRISM User’s Manual (Version 1.10)

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The past few years have witnessed a tremendous interest in logic-based probabilistic learning as testified by the number of formalisms and systems and their applications. Logic-based probabilistic learning is a multidisciplinary research area that integrates relational or logic formalisms, probabilistic reasoning mechanisms, and machine learning and data mining principles. Logicbased probabilistic learning has found its way into many application areas including bioinformatics, diagnosis and troubleshooting, stochastic language processing, information retrieval, linkage analysis and discovery, robot control, and probabilistic constraint solving. PRISM (PRogramming In Statistical Modeling) is a logic-based language that integrates logic programming and probabilistic reasoning including parameter learning. It allows for the description of independent probabilistic choices and their consequences in general logic programs. PRISM supports parameter learning, i.e. for a given set of possibly incomplete observed data, PRISM can estimate the probability distributions to best explain the data. This power is suitable for applications such as learning parameters of stochastic grammars, training stochastic models for gene sequence analysis, game record analysis, user modeling, and obtaining probabilistic information for tuning systems performance. PRISM offers incomparable flexibility compared with specific statistical tools such as hidden Markov models (HMMs) [2, 14], probabilistic context free grammars (PCFGs) [2] and discrete Bayesian networks. PRISM employs a proof-theoretic approach to learning. It conducts learning in two phases: the first phase searches for all the explanations for the observed data, and the second phase estimates the probability distributions by using the EM algorithm. Learning from flat explanations can be exponential in both space and time. To speed up learning, the authors proposed learning from explanation graphs and using tabling to reduce redundancy in the construction of explanation graphs. The PRISM programming system is implemented on top of B-Prolog

### PRISM User’s Manual (Version 1.11.2)

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The past few years have witnessed a tremendous interest in logic-based probabilistic learning as testified by the number of formalisms and systems and their applications. Logic-based probabilistic learning is a multidisciplinary research area that integrates relational or logic formalisms, probabilistic reasoning mechanisms, and machine learning and data mining principles. Logic-based probabilistic learning has found its way into many application areas including bioinformatics, diagnosis and troubleshooting, stochastic language processing, information retrieval, linkage analysis and discovery, robot control, and probabilistic constraint solving. PRISM (PRogramming In Statistical Modeling) is a logic-based language that integrates logic programming and probabilistic reasoning including parameter learning. It allows for the description of independent probabilistic choices and their consequences in general logic programs. PRISM supports parameter learning, i.e. for a given set of possibly incomplete observed data, PRISM can estimate the probability distributions to best explain the data. This power is suitable for applications such as learning parameters of stochastic grammars, training stochastic models for gene sequence analysis, game record analysis, user modeling, and obtaining probabilistic information for tuning systems performance. PRISM offers incomparable flexibility compared with specific statistical tools such as hidden Markov models (HMMs) [4, 26], probabilistic context free grammars (PCFGs) [4] and discrete Bayesian networks. PRISM employs a proof-theoretic approach to learning. It conducts learning in two phases: the first phase searches for all the explanations for the observed data, and the second phase estimates the probability distributions by using the EM algorithm. Learning from flat explanations can be exponential in both space and time. To speed up learning, the authors proposed learning from explanation graphs and using tabling to reduce redundancy in the construction of explanation graphs. The PRISM programming system is implemented on top of B-Prolog

### PRISM User’s Manual (Version 1.12.1)

"... The past several years have witnessed a tremendous interest in logic-based probabilistic learning as testified by the number of formalisms and systems and their applications. Logic-based probabilistic learning is a multidisciplinary research area that integrates relational or logic formalisms, proba ..."

Abstract
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The past several years have witnessed a tremendous interest in logic-based probabilistic learning as testified by the number of formalisms and systems and their applications. Logic-based probabilistic learning is a multidisciplinary research area that integrates relational or logic formalisms, probabilistic reasoning mechanisms, and machine learning and data mining principles. Logic-based probabilistic learning has found its way into many application areas including bioinformatics, diagnosis and troubleshooting, stochastic language processing, information retrieval, linkage analysis and discovery, robot control, and probabilistic constraint solving. PRISM (PRogramming In Statistical Modeling) is a logic-based language that integrates logic programming and probabilistic reasoning including parameter learning. It allows for the description of independent probabilistic choices and their consequences in general logic programs. PRISM supports parameter learning, i.e. for a given set of possibly incomplete observed data, PRISM can estimate the probability distributions to best explain the data. This power is suitable for applications such as learning parameters of stochastic grammars, training stochastic models for gene sequence analysis, game record analysis, user modeling, and obtaining probabilistic information for tuning systems performance. PRISM offers incomparable flexibility compared with specific statistical tools such as hidden Markov models (HMMs) [4, 30], probabilistic context free grammars (PCFGs) [4] and discrete Bayesian networks. PRISM employs a proof-theoretic approach to learning. It conducts learning in two phases: the first phase searches for all the explanations for the observed data, and the second phase estimates the probability distributions by using the EM algorithm. Learning from flat explanations can be exponential in both space and time. To speed up learning, the authors proposed learning from explanation graphs and using tabling to reduce redundancy in the construction of explanation graphs. The PRISM programming system is implemented on top of B-Prolog

### An Algorithmic and a Geometric . . .

, 2007

"... We show that the class of conditional distributions satisfying the coarsening at Random (CAR) property for discrete data has a simple and robust algorithmic description based on randomized uniform multicovers: combinatorial objects generalizing the notion of partition of a set. However, the complexi ..."

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We show that the class of conditional distributions satisfying the coarsening at Random (CAR) property for discrete data has a simple and robust algorithmic description based on randomized uniform multicovers: combinatorial objects generalizing the notion of partition of a set. However, the complexity of a given CAR mechanism can be large: the maximal “height” of the needed multicovers can be exponential in the number of points in the sample space. The results stem from a geometric interpretation of the set of CAR distributions as a convex polytope and a characterization of its extreme points. The hierarchy of CAR models defined in this way could be useful in parsimonious statistical modelling of CAR mechanisms, though the results also raise doubts in applied work as to the meaningfulness of the CAR assumption in its full generality.

### PRISM User’s Manual (Version 2.0)

"... The past several years have witnessed a tremendous interest in logic-based probabilistic learning as testified by the number of formalisms and systems and their applications. Logic-based probabilistic learning is a multidisciplinary research area that integrates relational or logic formalisms, proba ..."

Abstract
- Add to MetaCart

The past several years have witnessed a tremendous interest in logic-based probabilistic learning as testified by the number of formalisms and systems and their applications. Logic-based probabilistic learning is a multidisciplinary research area that integrates relational or logic formalisms, probabilistic reasoning mechanisms, and machine learning and data mining principles. Logic-based probabilistic learning has found its way into many application areas including bioinformatics, diagnosis and troubleshooting, stochastic language processing, information retrieval, linkage analysis and discovery, robot control, and probabilistic constraint solving. PRISM (PRogramming In Statistical Modeling) is a logic-based language that integrates logic programming and probabilistic reasoning including parameter learning. It allows for the description of independent probabilistic choices and their consequences in general logic programs. PRISM supports parameter learning, i.e. for a given set of possibly incomplete observed data, PRISM can estimate the probability distributions to best explain the data. This power is suitable for applications such as learning parameters of stochastic grammars, training stochastic models for gene sequence analysis, game record analysis, user modeling, and obtaining probabilistic information for tuning systems performance. PRISM offers incomparable flexibility compared with specific statistical tools such as hidden Markov models (HMMs) [4, 30], probabilistic context free grammars (PCFGs) [4] and discrete Bayesian networks. PRISM employs a proof-theoretic approach to learning. It conducts learning in two phases: the first phase searches for all the explanations for the observed data, and the second phase estimates the probability distributions by using the EM algorithm. Learning from flat explanations can be exponential in both space and time. To speed up learning, the authors proposed learning from explanation graphs and using tabling to reduce redundancy in the construction of explanation graphs. The PRISM programming system is implemented on top of B-Prolog

### PRISM User’s Manual (Version 2.0 beta 4)

"... The past several years have witnessed a tremendous interest in logic-based probabilistic learning as testified by the number of formalisms and systems and their applications. Logic-based probabilistic learning is a multidisciplinary research area that integrates relational or logic formalisms, proba ..."

Abstract
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The past several years have witnessed a tremendous interest in logic-based probabilistic learning as testified by the number of formalisms and systems and their applications. Logic-based probabilistic learning is a multidisciplinary research area that integrates relational or logic formalisms, probabilistic reasoning mechanisms, and machine learning and data mining principles. Logic-based probabilistic learning has found its way into many application areas including bioinformatics, diagnosis and troubleshooting, stochastic language processing, information retrieval, linkage analysis and discovery, robot control, and probabilistic constraint solving. PRISM (PRogramming In Statistical Modeling) is a logic-based language that integrates logic programming and probabilistic reasoning including parameter learning. It allows for the description of independent probabilistic choices and their consequences in general logic programs. PRISM supports parameter learning, i.e. for a given set of possibly incomplete observed data, PRISM can estimate the probability distributions to best explain the data. This power is suitable for applications such as learning parameters of stochastic grammars, training stochastic models for gene sequence analysis, game record analysis, user modeling, and obtaining probabilistic information for tuning systems performance. PRISM offers incomparable flexibility compared with specific statistical tools such as hidden Markov models (HMMs) [4, 30], probabilistic context free grammars (PCFGs) [4] and discrete Bayesian networks. PRISM employs a proof-theoretic approach to learning. It conducts learning in two phases: the first phase searches for all the explanations for the observed data, and the second phase estimates the probability distributions by using the EM algorithm. Learning from flat explanations can be exponential in both space and time. To speed up learning, the authors proposed learning from explanation graphs and using tabling to reduce redundancy in the construction of explanation graphs. The PRISM programming system is implemented on top of B-Prolog

### PRISM User’s Manual (Version 2.0.3)

Abstract
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The past several years have witnessed a tremendous interest in logic-based probabilistic learning as testified by the number of formalisms and systems and their applications. Logic-based probabilistic learning is a multidisciplinary research area that integrates relational or logic formalisms, probabilistic reasoning mechanisms, and machine learning and data mining principles. Logic-based probabilistic learning has found its way into many application areas including bioinformatics, diagnosis and troubleshooting, stochastic language processing, information retrieval, linkage analysis and discovery, robot control, and probabilistic constraint solving. PRISM (PRogramming In Statistical Modeling) is a logic-based language that integrates logic programming and probabilistic reasoning including parameter learning. It allows for the description of independent probabilistic choices and their consequences in general logic programs. PRISM supports parameter learning, i.e. for a given set of possibly incomplete observed data, PRISM can estimate the probability distributions to best explain the data. This power is suitable for applications such as learning parameters of stochastic grammars, training stochastic models for gene sequence analysis, game record analysis, user modeling, and obtaining probabilistic information for tuning systems performance. PRISM offers incomparable flexibility compared with specific statistical tools such as hidden Markov models (HMMs) [4, 31], probabilistic context free grammars (PCFGs) [4] and discrete Bayesian networks. PRISM employs a proof-theoretic approach to learning. It conducts learning in two phases: the first phase searches for all the explanations for the observed data, and the second phase estimates the probability distributions by using the EM algorithm. Learning from flat explanations can be exponential in both space and time. To speed up learning, the authors proposed learning from explanation graphs and using tabling to reduce redundancy in the construction of explanation graphs. The PRISM programming system is implemented on top of B-Prolog