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MPFR: A multipleprecision binary floatingpoint library with correct rounding
 ACM Trans. Math. Softw
, 2007
"... This paper presents a multipleprecision binary floatingpoint library, written in the ISO C language, and based on the GNU MP library. Its particularity is to extend to arbitraryprecision ideas from the IEEE 754 standard, by providing correct rounding and exceptions. We demonstrate how these stron ..."
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Cited by 134 (18 self)
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This paper presents a multipleprecision binary floatingpoint library, written in the ISO C language, and based on the GNU MP library. Its particularity is to extend to arbitraryprecision ideas from the IEEE 754 standard, by providing correct rounding and exceptions. We demonstrate how these strong semantics are achieved — with no significant slowdown with respect to other arbitraryprecision tools — and discuss a few applications where such a library can be useful. Categories and Subject Descriptors: D.3.0 [Programming Languages]: General—Standards; G.1.0 [Numerical Analysis]: General—computer arithmetic, multiple precision arithmetic; G.1.2 [Numerical Analysis]: Approximation—elementary and special function approximation; G 4 [Mathematics of Computing]: Mathematical Software—algorithm design, efficiency, portability
The Exact Computation Paradigm
, 1994
"... We describe a paradigm for numerical computing, based on exact computation. This emerging paradigm has many advantages compared to the standard paradigm which is based on fixedprecision. We first survey the literature on multiprecision number packages, a prerequisite for exact computation. Next ..."
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Cited by 107 (12 self)
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We describe a paradigm for numerical computing, based on exact computation. This emerging paradigm has many advantages compared to the standard paradigm which is based on fixedprecision. We first survey the literature on multiprecision number packages, a prerequisite for exact computation. Next we survey some recent applications of this paradigm. Finally, we outline some basic theory and techniques in this paradigm. 1 This paper will appear as a chapter in the 2nd edition of Computing in Euclidean Geometry, edited by D.Z. Du and F.K. Hwang, published by World Scientific Press, 1994. 1 1 Two Numerical Computing Paradigms Computation has always been intimately associated with numbers: computability theory was early on formulated as a theory of computable numbers, the first computers have been number crunchers and the original massproduced computers were pocket calculators. Although one's first exposure to computers today is likely to be some nonnumerical application, numeri...
On Properties of Floating Point Arithmetics: Numerical Stability and the Cost of Accurate Computations
, 1992
"... Floating point arithmetics generally possess many regularity properties in addition to those that are typically used in roundoff error analyses; these properties can be exploited to produce computations that are more accurate and cost effective than many programmers might think possible. Furthermore ..."
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Cited by 34 (0 self)
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Floating point arithmetics generally possess many regularity properties in addition to those that are typically used in roundoff error analyses; these properties can be exploited to produce computations that are more accurate and cost effective than many programmers might think possible. Furthermore, many of these properties are quite simple to state and to comprehend, but few programmers seem to be aware of them (or at least willing to rely on them). This dissertation presents some of these properties and explores their consequences for computability, accuracy, cost, and portability. For example, we consider several algorithms for summing a sequence of numbers and show that under very general hypotheses, we can compute a sum to full working precision at only somewhat greater cost than a simple accumulation, which can often produce a sum with no significant figures at all. This example, as well as others we present, can be generalized further by substituting still more complex algorith...
Numerical Evaluation of Special Functions
 In W. Gautschi (Ed.), AMS Proceedings of Symposia in Applied Mathematics 48
, 1994
"... . This document is an excerpt from the current hypertext version of an article that appeared in Walter Gautschi (ed.), Mathematics of Computation 19431993: A HalfCentury of Computational Mathematics, Proceedings of Symposia in Applied Mathematics 48, American Mathematical Society, Providence, ..."
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Cited by 28 (0 self)
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. This document is an excerpt from the current hypertext version of an article that appeared in Walter Gautschi (ed.), Mathematics of Computation 19431993: A HalfCentury of Computational Mathematics, Proceedings of Symposia in Applied Mathematics 48, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI 02940, 1994. The symposium was held at the University of British Columbia August 913, 1993, in honor of the fiftieth anniversary of the journal Mathematics of Computation. The original abstract follows. Higher transcendental functions continue to play varied and important roles in investigations by engineers, mathematicians, scientists and statisticians. The purpose of this paper is to assist in locating useful approximations and software for the numerical generation of these functions, and to offer some suggestions for future developments in this field. 5.9. Mathieu, Lam'e, and Spheroidal Wave Functions. 5.9.1. Characteristic Values of Mathieu's Equation. Software Packages:...
VariablePrecision, Interval Arithmetic Processors
"... This chapter presents the design and analysis of variableprecision, interval arithmetic processors. The processors give the user the ability to specify the precision of the computation, determine the accuracy of the results, and recompute inaccurate results with higher precision. The processors sup ..."
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Cited by 20 (1 self)
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This chapter presents the design and analysis of variableprecision, interval arithmetic processors. The processors give the user the ability to specify the precision of the computation, determine the accuracy of the results, and recompute inaccurate results with higher precision. The processors support a wide variety of arithmetic operations on variableprecision floating point numbers and intervals. Efficient hardware algorithms and specially designed functional units increase the speed, accuracy, and reliability of numerical computations. Area and delay estimates indicate that the processors can be implemented with areas and cycle times that are comparable to conventional IEEE doubleprecision floating point coprocessors. Execution time estimates indicate that the processors are two to three orders of magnitude faster than a conventional software package for variableprecision, interval arithmetic. 1.1 INTRODUCTION Floating point arithmetic provides a highspeed method for perform...
Software And Hardware Techniques For Accurate, SelfValidating Arithmetic
, 1996
"... The need for accurate and reliable numerical applications has led to the development of several software tools and hardware designs for accurate, selfvalidating arithmetic. Software tools include variableprecision software packages, interval arithmetic libraries, scientific programming languages, ..."
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Cited by 11 (1 self)
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The need for accurate and reliable numerical applications has led to the development of several software tools and hardware designs for accurate, selfvalidating arithmetic. Software tools include variableprecision software packages, interval arithmetic libraries, scientific programming languages, computer algebra systems, and numerical problem solving environments. Hardware designs include coprocessors that support the directed rounding modes and exact dot products, variableprecision integer and floating point processors, and coprocessors for variableprecision, interval arithmetic. In this survey, we examine various software and hardware techniques for accurate, selfvalidating arithmetic and discuss their strengths and limitations. We also discuss numerical applications that employ these tools to produce accurate and reliable results. 1 INTRODUCTION Advances in VLSI technology, parallel processing, and computer architecture have led to increasingly faster digital computers. Duri...
A multipleprecision division algorithm
 Math. Comp
, 1996
"... Abstract. The classical algorithm for multipleprecision division normalizes digits during each step and sometimes makes correction steps when the initial guess for the quotient digit turns out to be wrong. A method is presented that runs faster by skipping most of the intermediate normalization and ..."
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Cited by 3 (1 self)
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Abstract. The classical algorithm for multipleprecision division normalizes digits during each step and sometimes makes correction steps when the initial guess for the quotient digit turns out to be wrong. A method is presented that runs faster by skipping most of the intermediate normalization and recovers from wrong guesses without separate correction steps. 1.
A precision and range independent tool for testing floatingpoint arithmetic I: basic operations, square root and remainder
, 1999
"... This paper introduces a precision and range independent tool for testing the compliance of hardware or software implementations of (multiprecision) floatingpoint arithmetic with the principles of the IEEE standards 754 and 854. The tool consists of a driver program, o#ering many options to test onl ..."
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Cited by 2 (0 self)
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This paper introduces a precision and range independent tool for testing the compliance of hardware or software implementations of (multiprecision) floatingpoint arithmetic with the principles of the IEEE standards 754 and 854. The tool consists of a driver program, o#ering many options to test only specific aspects of the IEEE standards, and a large set of test vectors, encoded in a precision independent syntax to allow the testing of basic and extended hardware formats as well as multiprecision floatingpoint implementations.
A precision independent tool for testing floatingpoint arithmetic I: basic operations, square root and remainder
, 2000
"... ing with credit is permitted. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers, to redistribute to lists, or to use any component of this work in other works, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. Permissions may be requested from Publications Dept, ACM Inc., 1515 Broadway, New York, N ..."
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Cited by 2 (2 self)
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ing with credit is permitted. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers, to redistribute to lists, or to use any component of this work in other works, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. Permissions may be requested from Publications Dept, ACM Inc., 1515 Broadway, New York, NY 10036 USA, fax +1 (212) 8690481, or permissions@acm.org. 2 \Delta A. Cuyt, B. Verdonk and D. Verschaeren 1. INTRODUCTION AND MOTIVATION The IEEE standard [IEEE 1985] for floatingpoint arithmetic, which became official in 1985 and which we shall refer to as IEEE754, has been adopted by most major microprocessor manufacturers. Whereas guaranteeing 100% correctness of an IEEE floatingpoint implementation is hardly feasible, as the famous Intel Pentium bug clearly demonstrated, several good but unrelated tools exist to test different aspects of a floatingpoint implementation for compliance with the IEEE754 standard. Concurrent with the adoption of IEEE754 by the microprocessor ind...