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133
Reinforcement Learning I: Introduction
, 1998
"... In which we try to give a basic intuitive sense of what reinforcement learning is and how it differs and relates to other fields, e.g., supervised learning and neural networks, genetic algorithms and artificial life, control theory. Intuitively, RL is trial and error (variation and selection, search ..."
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Cited by 5500 (120 self)
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In which we try to give a basic intuitive sense of what reinforcement learning is and how it differs and relates to other fields, e.g., supervised learning and neural networks, genetic algorithms and artificial life, control theory. Intuitively, RL is trial and error (variation and selection, search) plus learning (association, memory). We argue that RL is the only field that seriously addresses the special features of the problem of learning from interaction to achieve longterm goals.
LeastSquares Policy Iteration
 JOURNAL OF MACHINE LEARNING RESEARCH
, 2003
"... We propose a new approach to reinforcement learning for control problems which combines valuefunction approximation with linear architectures and approximate policy iteration. This new approach ..."
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Cited by 461 (12 self)
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We propose a new approach to reinforcement learning for control problems which combines valuefunction approximation with linear architectures and approximate policy iteration. This new approach
The linear programming approach to approximate dynamic programming
 Operations Research
, 2001
"... The curse of dimensionality gives rise to prohibitive computational requirements that render infeasible the exact solution of largescale stochastic control problems. We study an efficient method based on linear programming for approximating solutions to such problems. The approach “fits ” a linear ..."
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Cited by 225 (17 self)
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The curse of dimensionality gives rise to prohibitive computational requirements that render infeasible the exact solution of largescale stochastic control problems. We study an efficient method based on linear programming for approximating solutions to such problems. The approach “fits ” a linear combination of preselected basis functions to the dynamic programming costtogo function. We develop error bounds that offer performance guarantees and also guide the selection of both basis functions and “staterelevance weights ” that influence quality of the approximation. Experimental results in the domain of queueing network control provide empirical support for the methodology. (Dynamic programming/optimal control: approximations/largescale problems. Queues, algorithms: control of queueing networks.)
FeatureBased Methods For Large Scale Dynamic Programming
 Machine Learning
, 1994
"... We develop a methodological framework and present a few different ways in which dynamic programming and compact representations can be Combined to solve large scale stochastic control problems. In particular, we develop algorithms that employ two types of featurebased compact representations, that ..."
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Cited by 179 (9 self)
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We develop a methodological framework and present a few different ways in which dynamic programming and compact representations can be Combined to solve large scale stochastic control problems. In particular, we develop algorithms that employ two types of featurebased compact representations, that is, representations that involve an arbitrarily complex feature extraction stage and a relatively simple approximation architecture. We prove the convergence of these algorithms and provide bounds on the approximation error. We also apply one of these algorithms to pro duce a computer program that plays Tetris at a respectable skill level. Furthermore, we provide a counterexample illustrating the difficulties of integrating compact representations and dynamic programming: which exemplifies the shortcomings of several methods in current practice, including Qlearning and temporaldifference learning.
Multiagent Planning with Factored MDPs
 In NIPS14
, 2001
"... We present a principled and efficient planning algorithm for cooperative multiagent dynamic systems. A striking feature of our method is that the coordination and communication between the agents is not imposed, but derived directly from the system dynamics and function approximation architecture ..."
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Cited by 174 (15 self)
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We present a principled and efficient planning algorithm for cooperative multiagent dynamic systems. A striking feature of our method is that the coordination and communication between the agents is not imposed, but derived directly from the system dynamics and function approximation architecture. We view the entire multiagent system as a single, large Markov decision process (MDP), which we assume can be represented in a factored way using a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN). The action space of the resulting MDP is the joint action space of the entire set of agents. Our approach is based on the use of factored linear value functions as an approximation to the joint value function. This factorization of the value function allows the agents to coordinate their actions at runtime using a natural message passing scheme. We provide a simple and efficient method for computing such an approximate value function by solving a single linear program, whose size is determined by the interaction between the value function structure and the DBN. We thereby avoid the exponential blowup in the state and action space. We show that our approach compares favorably with approaches based on reward sharing. We also show that our algorithm is an efficient alternative to more complicated algorithms even in the single agent case.
Efficient Solution Algorithms for Factored MDPs
, 2003
"... This paper addresses the problem of planning under uncertainty in large Markov Decision Processes (MDPs). Factored MDPs represent a complex state space using state variables and the transition model using a dynamic Bayesian network. This representation often allows an exponential reduction in the re ..."
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Cited by 174 (4 self)
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This paper addresses the problem of planning under uncertainty in large Markov Decision Processes (MDPs). Factored MDPs represent a complex state space using state variables and the transition model using a dynamic Bayesian network. This representation often allows an exponential reduction in the representation size of structured MDPs, but the complexity of exact solution algorithms for such MDPs can grow exponentially in the representation size. In this paper, we present two approximate solution algorithms that exploit structure in factored MDPs. Both use an approximate value function represented as a linear combination of basis functions, where each basis function involves only a small subset of the domain variables. A key contribution of this paper is that it shows how the basic operations of both algorithms can be performed efficiently in closed form, by exploiting both additive and contextspecific structure in a factored MDP. A central element of our algorithms is a novel linear program decomposition technique, analogous to variable elimination in Bayesian networks, which reduces an exponentially large LP to a provably equivalent, polynomialsized one. One algorithm uses approximate linear programming, and the second approximate dynamic programming. Our dynamic programming algorithm is novel in that it uses an approximation based on maxnorm, a technique that more directly minimizes the terms that appear in error bounds for approximate MDP algorithms. We provide experimental results on problems with over 10^40 states, demonstrating a promising indication of the scalability of our approach, and compare our algorithm to an existing stateoftheart approach, showing, in some problems, exponential gains in computation time.
CongestionDependent Pricing of Network Services
 IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
, 1998
"... Weconsider a service provider (SP) who provides access to a communication network or some other form of online services. Users access the network and initiate calls that belong to a set of diverse service classes, differing in resource requirements, demand pattern, and call duration. ..."
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Cited by 154 (0 self)
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Weconsider a service provider (SP) who provides access to a communication network or some other form of online services. Users access the network and initiate calls that belong to a set of diverse service classes, differing in resource requirements, demand pattern, and call duration.
On constraint sampling in the linear programming approach to approximate dynamic programming
 Mathematics of Operations Research
, 2004
"... doi 10.1287/moor.1040.0094 ..."
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Learning nearoptimal policies with Bellmanresidual minimization based fitted policy iteration and a single sample path
 MACHINE LEARNING JOURNAL (2008) 71:89129
, 2008
"... ..."
Generalizing plans to new environments in relational MDPs
 In International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI03
, 2003
"... A longstanding goal in planning research is the ability to generalize plans developed for some set of environments to a new but similar environment, with minimal or no replanning. Such generalization can both reduce planning time and allow us to tackle larger domains than the ones tractable for dire ..."
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Cited by 111 (2 self)
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A longstanding goal in planning research is the ability to generalize plans developed for some set of environments to a new but similar environment, with minimal or no replanning. Such generalization can both reduce planning time and allow us to tackle larger domains than the ones tractable for direct planning. In this paper, we present an approach to the generalization problem based on a new framework of relational Markov Decision Processes (RMDPs). An RMDP can model a set of similar environments by representing objects as instances of different classes. In order to generalize plans to multiple environments, we define an approximate value function specified in terms of classes of objects and, in a multiagent setting, by classes of agents. This classbased approximate value function is optimized relative to a sampled subset of environments, and computed using an efficient linear programming method. We prove that a polynomial number of sampled environments suffices to achieve performance close to the performance achievable when optimizing over the entire space. Our experimental results show that our method generalizes plans successfully to new, significantly larger, environments, with minimal loss of performance relative to environmentspecific planning. We demonstrate our approach on a real strategic computer war game. 1