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Probabilistic Outputs for Support Vector Machines and Comparisons to Regularized Likelihood Methods
 ADVANCES IN LARGE MARGIN CLASSIFIERS
, 1999
"... The output of a classifier should be a calibrated posterior probability to enable postprocessing. Standard SVMs do not provide such probabilities. One method to create probabilities is to directly train a kernel classifier with a logit link function and a regularized maximum likelihood score. Howev ..."
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Cited by 725 (0 self)
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The output of a classifier should be a calibrated posterior probability to enable postprocessing. Standard SVMs do not provide such probabilities. One method to create probabilities is to directly train a kernel classifier with a logit link function and a regularized maximum likelihood score. However, training with a maximum likelihood score will produce nonsparse kernel machines. Instead, we train an SVM, then train the parameters of an additional sigmoid function to map the SVM outputs into probabilities. This chapter compares classification error rate and likelihood scores for an SVM plus sigmoid versus a kernel method trained with a regularized likelihood error function. These methods are tested on three dataminingstyle data sets. The SVM+sigmoid yields probabilities of comparable quality to the regularized maximum likelihood kernel method, while still retaining the sparseness of the SVM.
Sparse Bayesian Learning and the Relevance Vector Machine
, 2001
"... This paper introduces a general Bayesian framework for obtaining sparse solutions to regression and classication tasks utilising models linear in the parameters. Although this framework is fully general, we illustrate our approach with a particular specialisation that we denote the `relevance vec ..."
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Cited by 584 (5 self)
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This paper introduces a general Bayesian framework for obtaining sparse solutions to regression and classication tasks utilising models linear in the parameters. Although this framework is fully general, we illustrate our approach with a particular specialisation that we denote the `relevance vector machine' (RVM), a model of identical functional form to the popular and stateoftheart `support vector machine' (SVM). We demonstrate that by exploiting a probabilistic Bayesian learning framework, we can derive accurate prediction models which typically utilise dramatically fewer basis functions than a comparable SVM while oering a number of additional advantages. These include the benets of probabilistic predictions, automatic estimation of `nuisance' parameters, and the facility to utilise arbitrary basis functions (e.g. non`Mercer' kernels).
A Bayesian Framework for the Analysis of Microarray Expression Data: Regularized tTest and Statistical Inferences of Gene Changes
 Bioinformatics
, 2001
"... Motivation: DNA microarrays are now capable of providing genomewide patterns of gene expression across many different conditions. The first level of analysis of these patterns requires determining whether observed differences in expression are significant or not. Current methods are unsatisfactory ..."
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Cited by 300 (2 self)
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Motivation: DNA microarrays are now capable of providing genomewide patterns of gene expression across many different conditions. The first level of analysis of these patterns requires determining whether observed differences in expression are significant or not. Current methods are unsatisfactory due to the lack of a systematic framework that can accommodate noise, variability, and low replication often typical of microarray data. Results: We develop a Bayesian probabilistic framework for microarray data analysis. At the simplest level, we model logexpression values by independent normal distributions, parameterized by corresponding means and variances with hierarchical prior distributions. We derive point estimates for both parameters and hyperparameters, and regularized expressions for the variance of each gene by combining the empirical variance with a local background variance associated with neighboring genes. An additional hyperparameter, inversely related to the number of empirical observations, determines the strength of the background variance. Simulations show that these point estimates, combined with a ttest, provide a systematic inference approach that compares favorably with simple ttest or fold methods, and partly compensate for the lack of replication. Availability: The approach is implemented in a software called CyberT accessible through a Web interface at www.genomics.uci.edu/software.html. The code is available as Open Source and is written in the freely available statistical language R. and Department of Biological Chemistry, College of Medicine, University of California, Irvine. To whom all correspondence should be addressed. Contact: pfbaldi@ics.uci.edu, tdlong@uci.edu. 1
Independent Factor Analysis
 Neural Computation
, 1999
"... We introduce the independent factor analysis (IFA) method for recovering independent hidden sources from their observed mixtures. IFA generalizes and unifies ordinary factor analysis (FA), principal component analysis (PCA), and independent component analysis (ICA), and can handle not only square no ..."
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Cited by 225 (9 self)
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We introduce the independent factor analysis (IFA) method for recovering independent hidden sources from their observed mixtures. IFA generalizes and unifies ordinary factor analysis (FA), principal component analysis (PCA), and independent component analysis (ICA), and can handle not only square noiseless mixing, but also the general case where the number of mixtures differs from the number of sources and the data are noisy. IFA is a twostep procedure. In the first step, the source densities, mixing matrix and noise covariance are estimated from the observed data by maximum likelihood. For this purpose we present an expectationmaximization (EM) algorithm, which performs unsupervised learning of an associated probabilistic model of the mixing situation. Each source in our model is described by a mixture of Gaussians, thus all the probabilistic calculations can be performed analytically. In the second step, the sources are reconstructed from the observed data by an optimal nonlinear ...
The Relevance Vector Machine
, 2000
"... The support vector machine (SVM) is a stateoftheart technique for regression and classification, combining excellent generalisation properties with a sparse kernel representation. However, it does suffer from a number of disadvantages, notably the absence of probabilistic outputs, the requirement ..."
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Cited by 219 (6 self)
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The support vector machine (SVM) is a stateoftheart technique for regression and classification, combining excellent generalisation properties with a sparse kernel representation. However, it does suffer from a number of disadvantages, notably the absence of probabilistic outputs, the requirement to estimate a tradeoff parameter and the need to utilise `Mercer' kernel functions. In this paper we introduce the Relevance Vector Machine (RVM), a Bayesian treatment of a generalised linear model of identical functional form to the SVM. The RVM suffers from none of the above disadvantages, and examples demonstrate that for comparable generalisation performance, the RVM requires dramatically fewer kernel functions.
Extraction of HighResolution Frames from Video Sequences
 IEEE Transactions on Image Processing
, 1996
"... The human visual system appears to be capable of temporally integrating information in a video sequence in such a way that the perceived spatial resolution of a sequence appears much higher than the spatial resolution of an individual frame. While the mechanisms in the human visual system which do t ..."
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Cited by 212 (9 self)
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The human visual system appears to be capable of temporally integrating information in a video sequence in such a way that the perceived spatial resolution of a sequence appears much higher than the spatial resolution of an individual frame. While the mechanisms in the human visual system which do this are unknown, the effect is not too surprising given that temporally adjacent frames in a video sequence contain slightly different, but unique, information. This paper addresses how to utilize both the spatial and temporal information present in a short image sequence to create a single highresolution video frame. A novel observation model based on motion compensated subsampling is proposed for a video sequence. Since the reconstruction problem is illposed, Bayesian restoration with a discontinuitypreserving prior image model is used to extract a highresolution video still given a short lowresolution sequence. Estimates computed from a lowresolution image sequence containing a subp...
Efficient approximations for the marginal likelihood of Bayesian networks with hidden variables
 Machine Learning
, 1997
"... We discuss Bayesian methods for learning Bayesian networks when data sets are incomplete. In particular, we examine asymptotic approximations for the marginal likelihood of incomplete data given a Bayesian network. We consider the Laplace approximation and the less accurate but more efficient BIC/MD ..."
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Cited by 179 (11 self)
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We discuss Bayesian methods for learning Bayesian networks when data sets are incomplete. In particular, we examine asymptotic approximations for the marginal likelihood of incomplete data given a Bayesian network. We consider the Laplace approximation and the less accurate but more efficient BIC/MDL approximation. We also consider approximations proposed by Draper (1993) and Cheeseman and Stutz (1995). These approximations are as efficient as BIC/MDL, but their accuracy has not been studied in any depth. We compare the accuracy of these approximations under the assumption that the Laplace approximation is the most accurate. In experiments using synthetic data generated from discrete naiveBayes models having a hidden root node, we find that (1) the BIC/MDL measure is the least accurate, having a bias in favor of simple models, and (2) the Draper and CS measures are the most accurate. 1
Probabilistic independence networks for hidden Markov probability models
, 1996
"... Graphical techniques for modeling the dependencies of random variables have been explored in a variety of different areas including statistics, statistical physics, artificial intelligence, speech recognition, image processing, and genetics. Formalisms for manipulating these models have been develop ..."
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Cited by 169 (12 self)
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Graphical techniques for modeling the dependencies of random variables have been explored in a variety of different areas including statistics, statistical physics, artificial intelligence, speech recognition, image processing, and genetics. Formalisms for manipulating these models have been developed relatively independently in these research communities. In this paper we explore hidden Markov models (HMMs) and related structures within the general framework of probabilistic independence networks (PINs). The paper contains a selfcontained review of the basic principles of PINs. It is shown that the wellknown forwardbackward (FB) and Viterbi algorithms for HMMs are special cases of more general inference algorithms for arbitrary PINs. Furthermore, the existence of inference and estimation algorithms for more general graphical models provides a set of analysis tools for HMM practitioners who wish to explore a richer class of HMM structures. Examples of relatively complex models to handle sensor fusion and coarticulation in speech recognition are introduced and treated within the graphical model framework to illustrate the advantages of the general approach.
The Evidence Framework applied to Classification Networks
 Neural Computation
, 1992
"... Three Bayesian ideas are presented for supervised adaptive classifiers. First, it is argued that the output of a classifier should be obtained by marginalising over the posterior distribution of the parameters; a simple approximation to this integral is proposed and demonstrated. This involves a `mo ..."
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Cited by 159 (10 self)
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Three Bayesian ideas are presented for supervised adaptive classifiers. First, it is argued that the output of a classifier should be obtained by marginalising over the posterior distribution of the parameters; a simple approximation to this integral is proposed and demonstrated. This involves a `moderation' of the most probable classifier 's outputs, and yields improved performance. Second, it is demonstrated that the Bayesian framework for model comparison described for regression models in (MacKay, 1992a, 1992b) can also be applied to classification problems. This framework successfully chooses the magnitude of weight decay terms, and ranks solutions found using different numbers of hidden units. Third, an informationbased data selection criterion is derived and demonstrated within this framework. 1 Introduction A quantitative Bayesian framework has been described for learning of mappings in feedforward networks (MacKay, 1992a, 1992b). It was demonstrated that this `evidence' fram...