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27
Efficient Frequency Domain Analysis of Large Nonlinear Analog Circuits
, 1996
"... In this paper, we present a new implementation of the harmonic balance method which extends its applicability to circuits 23 orders of magnitude larger than was previously practical. The results reported here extend our previous work [1] which only considered large circuits operating in a mildly no ..."
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Cited by 25 (2 self)
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In this paper, we present a new implementation of the harmonic balance method which extends its applicability to circuits 23 orders of magnitude larger than was previously practical. The results reported here extend our previous work [1] which only considered large circuits operating in a mildly nonlinear regime. The new implementation is based on quadratically convergent Newton methods and is able to simulate general nonlinear circuits. The significant efficiency improvement is achieved by use of Krylov subspace methods and a problemspecific preconditioner for inverting the harmonic balance Jacobian matrix. The analysis of radiofrequency mixers, implemented in integrated circuit technology, is an important application of our new method. We describe the theory behind the method, then report performance results on a complete receiver design using detailed transistor models. I. Introduction The method of Harmonic Balance is well established for fast and accurate steadystate analysi...
Fast Simulation Algorithms for RF Circuits
, 1996
"... RF integrated circuit designers make extensive use of simulation tools which perform nonlinear periodic steadystate analysis and its extensions. However, the computational costs of these simulation tools have restricted users from examining the detailed behavior of complete RF subsystems. Recent ..."
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Cited by 20 (3 self)
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RF integrated circuit designers make extensive use of simulation tools which perform nonlinear periodic steadystate analysis and its extensions. However, the computational costs of these simulation tools have restricted users from examining the detailed behavior of complete RF subsystems. Recent algorithmic de velopments, based on matriximplicit iterative methods, is rapidly changing this situation and providing new faster tools which can easily analyze circuits with hundreds of devices. In this paper we present these new methods by describing how they can be used to accelerate finitedifference, shootingNewton, and harmonic balance based algorithms for periodic steadystate analysis.
Fullchip Harmonic Balance
, 1997
"... Fast and accurate computation of the steadystate response of large nonlinear networks under periodic and quasiperiodic drive is a key simulation problem for integrated RF designs. In this paper we describe recent work which extends the method of Harmonic Balance to networks containing several milli ..."
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Cited by 16 (0 self)
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Fast and accurate computation of the steadystate response of large nonlinear networks under periodic and quasiperiodic drive is a key simulation problem for integrated RF designs. In this paper we describe recent work which extends the method of Harmonic Balance to networks containing several million unknowns. A new implementation is described, which includes new methods of preconditioning linear solves and an efficient method of storing derivative information. Then we report simulation and bench measurement results for several large designs, including a complete dualconversion transmitter chip with extracted layout parasitics. I. Introduction The explosive growth in RF silicon ICs, largely for portable wireless communication, has placed new demands on transistorlevel simulation tools: (1) The need to find the steadystate response of a nonlinear network driven by one or more periodic stimuli; In the case of more than one periodic stimulus, the driving periods may not always be har...
Analysing circuits with widely separated time scales using numerical PDE methods
 IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications
, 2001
"... Abstract—Widely separated time scales arise in many kinds of circuits, e.g., switchedcapacitor filters, mixers, switching power converters, etc. Numerical solution of such circuits is often difficult, especially when strong nonlinearities are present. In this paper, we present a mathematical formul ..."
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Cited by 12 (3 self)
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Abstract—Widely separated time scales arise in many kinds of circuits, e.g., switchedcapacitor filters, mixers, switching power converters, etc. Numerical solution of such circuits is often difficult, especially when strong nonlinearities are present. In this paper, we present a mathematical formulation and numerical methods for analyzing a broad class of such circuits or systems. The key idea is to use multiple time variables, which enable signals with widely separated rates of variation to be represented efficiently. This results in the transformation of differential equation descriptions of a system to partial differential ones, in effect decoupling different rates of variation from each other. Numerical methods can then be used to solve the partial differential equations (PDEs). In particular, timedomain methods can be used to handle the hitherto difficult case of strong nonlinearities together with widely separated rates of signal variation. We examine methods for obtaining quasiperiodic and envelope solutions, and describe how the PDE formulation unifies existing techniques for separatedtimeconstant problems. Several applications are described. Significant computation and memory savings result from using the new numerical techniques, which also scale gracefully with problem size. Index Terms—Multitime partial differential equations, widely separated time scales. I.
ComputerAided Circuit Analysis Tools for RFIC Simulation: Algorithms, Features, and Limitations
 IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems II: analog and digital signal processing
, 2000
"... The design of the radio frequency (RF) section in a communication integrated circuit (IC) is a challenging problem. Although several computeraided analysis tools are available for RFIC design, they are not effectively used, because there is a lack of understanding about their features and limitatio ..."
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Cited by 11 (3 self)
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The design of the radio frequency (RF) section in a communication integrated circuit (IC) is a challenging problem. Although several computeraided analysis tools are available for RFIC design, they are not effectively used, because there is a lack of understanding about their features and limitations. These tools provide fast simulation of RFIC's. However, no single tool delivers a complete solution for RFIC design. This paper describes the shortcomings of conventional SPICElike simulators and the analyses required for RF applications with an emphasis on accurate and efficient simulation of distortion and noise. Various analysis methods, such as harmonic balance, shooting method, mixed frequencytime methods, and envelope methods, that are currently available for RFIC simulation are presented. Commercial simulators are compared in terms of their functionalities and limitations. The key algorithmic features and the simulatorspecific terminology are described. Index TermsCircuit simulation, cyclostationary noise, distortion, envelope method, frequencydomain methods, harmonic distortion, intermodulation, linear timevarying analysis, mixed frequencytime methods, mixer noise, noise, periodic steadystate, phase noise, quasiperiodic steadystate, RFIC simulation, SPICE harmonic balance, shooting method, timedomain methods. I.
A multiinterval Chebyshev collocation method for efficient highaccuracy RF circuit simulation
 Proc. DAC
, 2000
"... Most RF circuit analysis tools use either shootingNewton or harmonic balance methods. Neither can efficiently achieve high accuracy on strongly nonlinear circuits possessing waveforms with rapid transitions. We present a multiintervalChebyshev (MIC) method that discretizes the circuit equations b ..."
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Cited by 6 (3 self)
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Most RF circuit analysis tools use either shootingNewton or harmonic balance methods. Neither can efficiently achieve high accuracy on strongly nonlinear circuits possessing waveforms with rapid transitions. We present a multiintervalChebyshev (MIC) method that discretizes the circuit equations by dividing the simulation domain into a set of intervals whose size is adaptively chosen and using Chebyshev polynomials to represent the solution in each interval. The MIC method has excellent stability properties, is as effective at solving nonlinear problems as shooting techniques, can achieve high resolution on a wide variety of circuits, and in conjunction with an appropriate preconditioner can be combined with matriximplicit Krylovsubspace solvers to analyze large circuits with moderate computational cost.
Modeling and Simulation of Coupling Structures for QuasiOptical Systems
, 1993
"... Heron, Patrick Lascelles Modeling and Simulation of Coupling Structures for QuasiOptical Systems. Under the direction of Michael B. Steer and James W. Mink Sponsored research was directed toward developing millimeter wave power sources utilizing quasioptical techniques. A system consisting of ..."
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Cited by 5 (0 self)
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Heron, Patrick Lascelles Modeling and Simulation of Coupling Structures for QuasiOptical Systems. Under the direction of Michael B. Steer and James W. Mink Sponsored research was directed toward developing millimeter wave power sources utilizing quasioptical techniques. A system consisting of an array of oscillators that radiated into a quasioptical resonator was analyzed. Each oscillator was comprised of a solid state device and a radiating structure. A dyadic Green's function was developed for a FabryPerot resonator which consisted of a metallic planar reflector and a shallow spherical metallic reflector. The Green's function was applied to determine the driving point impedance matrix for an array of electrically small antennas within the resonator. An experimental Xband resonator was designed and fabricated, then one and twoport measurements were used to validate the theoretical calculations. A technique was determined for simulation of antennas that are not electrically ...
Computeraided design of RF and microwave circuits and systems
 IEEE TRANS. MICROWAVE THEORY TECH
, 2002
"... The history of RF and microwave computeraided engineering is documented in the annals of the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society. The era began with elaborate analytically based models of microwave components and simple computeraided techniques to cascade, cascode, and otherwise connect l ..."
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Cited by 5 (2 self)
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The history of RF and microwave computeraided engineering is documented in the annals of the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society. The era began with elaborate analytically based models of microwave components and simple computeraided techniques to cascade, cascode, and otherwise connect linear component models to obtain the responses of linear microwave circuits. Development has become rapid with today’s computeroriented microwave practices addressing complex geometries and with the ability to globally model and optimize large circuits. The pursuit of accurate models of active devices and of passive components continues to be a key activity.
TimeMapped Harmonic Balance
, 1999
"... Matriximplicit Krylovsubspace methods have made it possible to efficiently compute the periodic steadystate of large circuits using either the timedomain shootingNewton method or the frequencydomain harmonic balance method. However, the harmonic balance methods are not so efficient at computing ..."
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Cited by 4 (0 self)
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Matriximplicit Krylovsubspace methods have made it possible to efficiently compute the periodic steadystate of large circuits using either the timedomain shootingNewton method or the frequencydomain harmonic balance method. However, the harmonic balance methods are not so efficient at computing steadystate solutions with rapid transitions, and the loworder integration methods typically used with shootingNewton methods are not so efficient when high accuracy is required. In this paper we describe a TimeMapped Harmonic Balance method (TMHB), a fast Krylovsubspace spectral method that overcomes the inefficiency of standard harmonic balance in the case of rapid transitions. TMHB features a nonuniform grid to resolve the sharp features in the signals. Results on several examples demonstrate that the TMHB method achieves several orders of magnitude improvement in accuracy compared to the standard harmonic balance method. The TMHB method is also several times faster than the standard harmonic balance method in reaching identical solution accuracy.
New BehavioralLevel Simulation Technique for RF/Microwave Applications. Part III: Advanced Concepts
, 2001
"... ABSTRACT: The quadrature modeling structure is widely accepted as an efficient tool for the nonlinear simulation of RF/microwave bandpass stages (power amplifiers, etc.) for wireless applications. The common belief is that this structure can be applied to model only bandpass memoryless nonlinearitie ..."
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Cited by 4 (4 self)
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ABSTRACT: The quadrature modeling structure is widely accepted as an efficient tool for the nonlinear simulation of RF/microwave bandpass stages (power amplifiers, etc.) for wireless applications. The common belief is that this structure can be applied to model only bandpass memoryless nonlinearities (which, however, may exhibit amplitudetophase conversion). In two recent articles [1, 2] the authors have extended the application of the quadrature modeling structure to modeling broadband nonlinearities, which makes possible to predict harmonics and evenorder nonlinearities, to take into account the frequency response, etc. This article completes the overview of the instantaneous quadrature technique. The authors discuss its application to modeling AM, FM and PM detectors, which are strongly nonlinear elements with large memory (both the strong nonlinearity and large memory effects are essential for the detector proper operation), thus removing the limitation of nonlinearity to be memoryless or quasimemoryless. The identification of nonlinear interference/distortion sources is of great relevance for a practical EMC/EMI design. In the second part of this article, we discuss the dichotomous identification method, which is much more computationally efficient than a simple singlesignal method, especially for a large number of input signals. Individual spectral components of a complexspectrum signal can also be considered as input signals and, hence, it is possible to identify the spectral components responsible for a particular nonlinear interference/distortion (say, for a particular