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214
Finding community structure in networks using the eigenvectors of matrices. Phys
 Rev. E
"... We consider the problem of detecting communities or modules in networks, groups of vertices with a higherthanaverage density of edges connecting them. Previous work indicates that a robust approach to this problem is the maximization of the benefit function known as “modularity ” over possible div ..."
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Cited by 228 (0 self)
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We consider the problem of detecting communities or modules in networks, groups of vertices with a higherthanaverage density of edges connecting them. Previous work indicates that a robust approach to this problem is the maximization of the benefit function known as “modularity ” over possible divisions of a network. Here we show that this maximization process can be written in terms of the eigenspectrum of a matrix we call the modularity matrix, which plays a role in community detection similar to that played by the graph Laplacian in graph partitioning calculations. This result leads us to a number of possible algorithms for detecting community structure, as well as several other results, including a spectral measure of bipartite structure in networks and a new centrality measure that identifies those vertices that occupy central positions within the communities to which they belong. The algorithms and measures proposed are illustrated with applications to a variety of realworld complex networks. I.
BUBBLE Rap: Socialbased forwarding in delay tolerant networks
 in Proc. ACM MobiHoc
, 2008
"... In this paper we seek to improve our understanding of human mobility in terms of social structures, and to use these structures in the design of forwarding algorithms for Pocket Switched Networks (PSNs). Taking human mobility traces from the real world, we discover that human interaction is heteroge ..."
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Cited by 134 (23 self)
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In this paper we seek to improve our understanding of human mobility in terms of social structures, and to use these structures in the design of forwarding algorithms for Pocket Switched Networks (PSNs). Taking human mobility traces from the real world, we discover that human interaction is heterogeneous both in terms of hubs (popular individuals) and groups or communities. We propose a social based forwarding algorithm, BUBBLE, which is shown empirically to improve the forwarding efficiency significantly compared to oblivious forwarding schemes and to PROPHET algorithm. We also show how this algorithm can be implemented in a distributed way, which demonstrates that it is applicable in the decentralised environment of PSNs.
Statistical properties of community structure in large social and information networks
"... A large body of work has been devoted to identifying community structure in networks. A community is often though of as a set of nodes that has more connections between its members than to the remainder of the network. In this paper, we characterize as a function of size the statistical and structur ..."
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Cited by 120 (10 self)
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A large body of work has been devoted to identifying community structure in networks. A community is often though of as a set of nodes that has more connections between its members than to the remainder of the network. In this paper, we characterize as a function of size the statistical and structural properties of such sets of nodes. We define the network community profile plot, which characterizes the “best ” possible community—according to the conductance measure—over a wide range of size scales, and we study over 70 large sparse realworld networks taken from a wide range of application domains. Our results suggest a significantly more refined picture of community structure in large realworld networks than has been appreciated previously. Our most striking finding is that in nearly every network dataset we examined, we observe tight but almost trivial communities at very small scales, and at larger size scales, the best possible communities gradually “blend in ” with the rest of the network and thus become less “communitylike.” This behavior is not explained, even at a qualitative level, by any of the commonlyused network generation models. Moreover, this behavior is exactly the opposite of what one would expect based on experience with and intuition from expander graphs, from graphs that are wellembeddable in a lowdimensional structure, and from small social networks that have served as testbeds of community detection algorithms. We have found, however, that a generative model, in which new edges are added via an iterative “forest fire” burning process, is able to produce graphs exhibiting a network community structure similar to our observations.
Computing communities in large networks using random walks
 J. of Graph Alg. and App. bf
, 2004
"... Dense subgraphs of sparse graphs (communities), which appear in most realworld complex networks, play an important role in many contexts. Computing them however is generally expensive. We propose here a measure of similarities between vertices based on random walks which has several important advan ..."
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Cited by 95 (2 self)
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Dense subgraphs of sparse graphs (communities), which appear in most realworld complex networks, play an important role in many contexts. Computing them however is generally expensive. We propose here a measure of similarities between vertices based on random walks which has several important advantages: it captures well the community structure in a network, it can be computed efficiently, and it can be used in an agglomerative algorithm to compute efficiently the community structure of a network. We propose such an algorithm, called Walktrap, which runs in time O(mn 2) and space O(n 2) in the worst case, and in time O(n 2 log n) and space O(n 2) in most realworld cases (n and m are respectively the number of vertices and edges in the input graph). Extensive comparison tests show that our algorithm surpasses previously proposed ones concerning the quality of the obtained community structures and that it stands among the best ones concerning the running time.
Community structure in large networks: Natural cluster sizes and the absence of large welldefined clusters
, 2008
"... A large body of work has been devoted to defining and identifying clusters or communities in social and information networks, i.e., in graphs in which the nodes represent underlying social entities and the edges represent some sort of interaction between pairs of nodes. Most such research begins wit ..."
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Cited by 79 (6 self)
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A large body of work has been devoted to defining and identifying clusters or communities in social and information networks, i.e., in graphs in which the nodes represent underlying social entities and the edges represent some sort of interaction between pairs of nodes. Most such research begins with the premise that a community or a cluster should be thought of as a set of nodes that has more and/or better connections between its members than to the remainder of the network. In this paper, we explore from a novel perspective several questions related to identifying meaningful communities in large social and information networks, and we come to several striking conclusions. Rather than defining a procedure to extract sets of nodes from a graph and then attempt to interpret these sets as a “real ” communities, we employ approximation algorithms for the graph partitioning problem to characterize as a function of size the statistical and structural properties of partitions of graphs that could plausibly be interpreted as communities. In particular, we define the network community profile plot, which characterizes the “best ” possible community—according to the conductance measure—over a wide range of size scales. We study over 100 large realworld networks, ranging from traditional and online social networks, to technological and information networks and
Quantifying social group evolution
 Nature
, 2007
"... The rich set of interactions between individuals in the society [1,2,3,4,5,6,7] results in complex community structure, capturing highly connected circles of friends, families, or professional cliques in a social network [3,7,8,9,10]. Thanks to frequent changes in the activity and communication patt ..."
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Cited by 55 (3 self)
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The rich set of interactions between individuals in the society [1,2,3,4,5,6,7] results in complex community structure, capturing highly connected circles of friends, families, or professional cliques in a social network [3,7,8,9,10]. Thanks to frequent changes in the activity and communication patterns of individuals, the associated social and communication network is subject to constant evolution [7,11,12,13,14,15,16]. Our knowledge of the mechanisms governing the underlying community dynamics is limited, but is essential for a deeper understanding of the development and selfoptimisation of the society as a whole [17,18,19,20,21,22]. We have developed a new algorithm based on clique percolation [23,24], that allows, for the first time, to investigate the time dependence of overlapping communities on a large scale and as such, to uncover basic relationships characterising community evolution. Our focus is on networks capturing the collaboration between scientists and the calls between mobile phone users. We find that large groups persist longer if they are capable of dynamically altering their membership, suggesting that an ability to change the composition results in better adaptability. The behaviour of small groups displays the opposite tendency, the condition
Evolutionary games on graphs
, 2007
"... Game theory is one of the key paradigms behind many scientific disciplines from biology to behavioral sciences to economics. In its evolutionary form and especially when the interacting agents are linked in a specific social network the underlying solution concepts and methods are very similar to ..."
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Cited by 55 (0 self)
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Game theory is one of the key paradigms behind many scientific disciplines from biology to behavioral sciences to economics. In its evolutionary form and especially when the interacting agents are linked in a specific social network the underlying solution concepts and methods are very similar to those applied in nonequilibrium statistical physics. This review gives a tutorialtype overview of the field for physicists. The first four sections introduce the necessary background in classical and evolutionary game theory from the basic definitions to the most important results. The fifth section surveys the topological complications implied by nonmeanfieldtype social network structures in general. The next three sections discuss in detail the dynamic behavior of three prominent classes of models: the Prisoner’s Dilemma, the Rock–Scissors–Paper game, and Competing Associations. The major theme of the review is in what sense and how the graph structure of interactions can modify and enrich the picture of long term behavioral patterns emerging in evolutionary games.
POLYPHONET: An advanced social network extraction system
, 2006
"... Social networks play important roles in the Semantic Web: knowledge management, information retrieval, ubiquitous computing, and so on. We propose a social network extraction system called POLYPHONET, which employs several advanced techniques to extract relations of persons, detect groups of person ..."
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Cited by 46 (15 self)
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Social networks play important roles in the Semantic Web: knowledge management, information retrieval, ubiquitous computing, and so on. We propose a social network extraction system called POLYPHONET, which employs several advanced techniques to extract relations of persons, detect groups of persons, and obtain keywords for a person. Search engines, especially Google, are used to measure cooccurrence of information and obtain Web documents. Several studies have used search engines to extract social networks from the Web, but our research advances the following points: First, we reduce the related methods into simple pseudocodes using Google so that we can build up integrated systems. Second, we develop several new algorithms for social networking mining such as those to classify relations into categories, to make extraction scalable, and to obtain and utilize persontoword relations. Third, every module is implemented in POLYPHONET, which has been used at four academic conferences, each with more than 500 participants. We overview that system. Finally, a novel architecture called Super Social Network Mining is proposed; it utilizes simple modules using Google and is characterized by scalability and RelateIdentify processes: Identification of each entity and extraction of relations are repeated to obtain a more precise social network.
CFinder: Locating cliques and overlapping modules in biological networks
 Bionformatics
"... Summary: Most cellular tasks are performed not by individual proteins, but by groups of functionally associated proteins, often referred to as modules. In a protein assocation network modules appear as groups of densely interconnected nodes, also called communities or clusters. These modules often o ..."
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Cited by 44 (1 self)
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Summary: Most cellular tasks are performed not by individual proteins, but by groups of functionally associated proteins, often referred to as modules. In a protein assocation network modules appear as groups of densely interconnected nodes, also called communities or clusters. These modules often overlap with each other and form a network of their own, in which nodes (links) represent the modules (overlaps). We introduce CFinder, a fast program locating and visualizing overlapping, densely interconnected groups of nodes in undirected graphs, and allowing the user to easily navigate between the original graph and the web of these groups. We show that in gene (protein) association networks CFinder can be used to predict the function(s) of a single protein and to discover novel modules. CFinder is also very efficient for locating the cliques of large sparse graphs. Availability: CFinder (for Windows, Linux, and Macintosh) and its manual can be downloaded from
An Algorithm to Find Overlapping Community Structure in Networks
"... Abstract. Recent years have seen the development of many graph clustering algorithms, which can identify community structure in networks. The vast majority of these only find disjoint communities, but in many realworld networks communities overlap to some extent. We present a new algorithm for disc ..."
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Cited by 38 (3 self)
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Abstract. Recent years have seen the development of many graph clustering algorithms, which can identify community structure in networks. The vast majority of these only find disjoint communities, but in many realworld networks communities overlap to some extent. We present a new algorithm for discovering overlapping communities in networks, by extending Girvan and Newman’s wellknown algorithm based on the betweenness centrality measure. Like the original algorithm, ours performs hierarchical clustering — partitioning a network into any desired number of clusters — but allows them to overlap. Experiments confirm good performance on randomly generated networks based on a known overlapping community structure, and interesting results have also been obtained on a range of realworld networks. 1