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Solution of the Robbins Problem
 Journal of Automated Reasoning
, 1997
"... . In this article we show that the three equations known as commutativity, associativity, and the Robbins equation are a basis for the variety of Boolean algebras. The problem was posed by Herbert Robbins in the 1930s. The proof was found automatically by EQP, a theoremproving program for equationa ..."
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. In this article we show that the three equations known as commutativity, associativity, and the Robbins equation are a basis for the variety of Boolean algebras. The problem was posed by Herbert Robbins in the 1930s. The proof was found automatically by EQP, a theoremproving program for equational logic. We present the proof and the search strategies that enabled the program to find the proof. Key words: Associativecommutative unification, Boolean algebra, EQP, equational logic, paramodulation, Robbins algebra, Robbins problem. 1. Introduction This article contains the answer to the Robbins question of whether all Robbins algebras are Boolean. The answer is yes, all Robbins algebras are Boolean. The proof that answers the question was found by EQP, an automated theoremproving program for equational logic. In 1933, E. V. Huntington presented the following three equations as a basis for Boolean algebra [6, 5]: x + y = y + x, (commutativity) (x + y) + z = x + (y + z), (associativit...
An Industrial Strength Theorem Prover for a Logic Based on Common Lisp
 IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
, 1997
"... ACL2 is a reimplemented extended version of Boyer and Moore's Nqthm and Kaufmann's PcNqthm, intended for large scale verification projects. This paper deals primarily with how we scaled up Nqthm's logic to an "industrial strength" programming language  namely, a large a ..."
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Cited by 128 (6 self)
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ACL2 is a reimplemented extended version of Boyer and Moore's Nqthm and Kaufmann's PcNqthm, intended for large scale verification projects. This paper deals primarily with how we scaled up Nqthm's logic to an "industrial strength" programming language  namely, a large applicative subset of Common Lisp  while preserving the use of total functions within the logic. This makes it possible to run formal models efficiently while keeping the logic simple. We enumerate many other important features of ACL2 and we briefly summarize two industrial applications: a model of the Motorola CAP digital signal processing chip and the proof of the correctness of the kernel of the floating point division algorithm on the AMD5K 86 microprocessor by Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
Strategies for Temporal Resolution
, 1995
"... Verifying that a temporal logic specification satisfies a temporal property requires some form of theorem proving. However, although proof procedures exist for such logics, many are either unsuitable for automatic implementation or only deal with small fragments of the logic. In this thesis the algo ..."
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Cited by 115 (48 self)
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Verifying that a temporal logic specification satisfies a temporal property requires some form of theorem proving. However, although proof procedures exist for such logics, many are either unsuitable for automatic implementation or only deal with small fragments of the logic. In this thesis the algorithms for, and strategies to guide, a fully automated temporal resolution theorem prover are given, proved correct and evaluated. An approach to applying resolution, a proof method for classical logics suited to mechanisation, to temporal logics has been developed by Fisher. The method involves translation to a normal form, classical style resolution within states and temporal resolution over states. It has only one temporal resolution rule and is therefore particularly suitable as the basis of an automated temporal resolution theorem prover. As the application of the temporal resolution rule is the most costly part of the method, involving search amongst graphs, different algorithms on w...
The Model Evolution Calculus
, 2003
"... The DPLL procedure is the basis of some of the most successful propositional satisfiability solvers to date. Although originally devised as a proofprocedure for firstorder logic, it has been used almost exclusively for propositional logic so far because of its highly inefficient treatment of quanti ..."
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Cited by 110 (20 self)
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The DPLL procedure is the basis of some of the most successful propositional satisfiability solvers to date. Although originally devised as a proofprocedure for firstorder logic, it has been used almost exclusively for propositional logic so far because of its highly inefficient treatment of quantifiers, based on instantiation into ground formulas. The recent FDPLL calculus by Baumgartner was the first successful attempt to lift the procedure to the firstorder level without resorting to ground instantiations. FDPLL lifts to the firstorder case the core of the DPLL procedure, the splitting rule, but ignores other aspects of the procedure that, although not necessary for completeness, are crucial for its effectiveness in practice. In this paper, we present a new calculus loosely based on FDPLL that lifts these aspects as well. In addition to being a more faithful litfing of the DPLL procedure, the new calculus contains a more systematic treatment of universal literals, one of FDPLL's optimizations, and so has the potential of leading to much faster implementations.
The TPTP problem library
 In Proc. 12th Conference on Automated Deduction (CADE12), LNAI 814
, 1994
"... ..."
ΩMEGA: Towards a Mathematical Assistant
, 1997
"... Ωmega is a mixedinitiative system with the ultimate purpose of supporting theorem proving in mainstream mathematics and mathematics education. The current system consists of a proof planner and an integrated collection of tools for formulating problems, proving subproblems, and proof presentati ..."
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Cited by 69 (30 self)
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Ωmega is a mixedinitiative system with the ultimate purpose of supporting theorem proving in mainstream mathematics and mathematics education. The current system consists of a proof planner and an integrated collection of tools for formulating problems, proving subproblems, and proof presentation.
A Comparison of Reasoning Techniques for Querying Large Description Logic ABoxes
, 2006
"... Abstract. Many modern applications of description logics (DLs) require answering queries over large data quantities, structured according to relatively simple ontologies. For such applications, we conjectured that reusing ideas of deductive databases might improve scalability of DL systems. Hence, i ..."
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Cited by 67 (10 self)
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Abstract. Many modern applications of description logics (DLs) require answering queries over large data quantities, structured according to relatively simple ontologies. For such applications, we conjectured that reusing ideas of deductive databases might improve scalability of DL systems. Hence, in our previous work, we developed an algorithm for reducing a DL knowledge base to a disjunctive datalog program. To test our conjecture, we implemented our algorithm in a new DL reasoner KAON2, which we describe in this paper. Furthermore, we created a comprehensive test suite and used it to conduct a performance evaluation. Our results show that, on knowledge bases with large ABoxes but with simple TBoxes, our technique indeed shows good performance; in contrast, on knowledge bases with large and complex TBoxes, existing techniques still perform better. This allowed us to gain important insights into strengths and weaknesses of both approaches. 1
Otter: The CADE13 Competition Incarnations
 JOURNAL OF AUTOMATED REASONING
, 1997
"... This article discusses the two incarnations of Otter entered in the CADE13 Automated Theorem Proving Competition. Also presented are some historical background, a summary of applications that have led to new results in mathematics and logic, and a general discussion of Otter. ..."
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Cited by 53 (3 self)
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This article discusses the two incarnations of Otter entered in the CADE13 Automated Theorem Proving Competition. Also presented are some historical background, a summary of applications that have led to new results in mathematics and logic, and a general discussion of Otter.
Integrating computer algebra into proof planning
 Journal of Automated Reasoning
, 1998
"... Abstract. Mechanised reasoning systems and computer algebra systems have different objectives. Their integration is highly desirable, since formal proofs often involve both of the two di erent tasks, proving and calculating. Even more importantly, proof and computation are often interwoven and not e ..."
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Cited by 41 (24 self)
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Abstract. Mechanised reasoning systems and computer algebra systems have different objectives. Their integration is highly desirable, since formal proofs often involve both of the two di erent tasks, proving and calculating. Even more importantly, proof and computation are often interwoven and not easily separable. In this contribution we advocate an integration of computer algebra into mechanised reasoning systems at the proof plan level. This approach allows to view the computer algebra algorithms as methods, that is, declarative representations of the problem solving knowledge speci c to a certain mathematical domain. Automation can be achieved in many cases bysearching for a hierarchic proof plan at the methodlevel using suitable domainspeci c control knowledge about the mathematical algorithms. In other words, the uniform framework of proof planning allows to solve a large class of problems that are not automatically solvable by separate systems. Our approach also gives an answer to the correctness problems inherent insuch an integration. We advocate an approach where the computer algebra system produces highlevel protocol information that can be processed by aninterface to derive proof plans. Such a proof plan in turn can be expanded to proofs at di erent levels of abstraction, so the approach iswellsuited for producing a highlevel verbalised explication as well as for a lowlevel machine checkable calculuslevel proof. We present an implementation of our ideas and exemplify them using an automatically solved example. Changes in the criterion of `rigour of the proof ' engender major revolutions in mathematics.