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Coordination of Groups of Mobile Autonomous Agents Using Nearest Neighbor Rules
, 2002
"... In a recent Physical Review Letters paper, Vicsek et. al. propose a simple but compelling discretetime model of n autonomous agents fi.e., points or particlesg all moving in the plane with the same speed but with dierent headings. Each agent's heading is updated using a local rule based on the a ..."
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Cited by 604 (44 self)
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In a recent Physical Review Letters paper, Vicsek et. al. propose a simple but compelling discretetime model of n autonomous agents fi.e., points or particlesg all moving in the plane with the same speed but with dierent headings. Each agent's heading is updated using a local rule based on the average of its own heading plus the headings of its \neighbors." In their paper, Vicsek et. al. provide simulation results which demonstrate that the nearest neighbor rule they are studying can cause all agents to eventually move in the same direction despite the absence of centralized coordination and despite the fact that each agent's set of nearest neighbors change with time as the system evolves. This paper provides a theoretical explanation for this observed behavior. In addition, convergence results are derived for several other similarly inspired models.
Flocking in Fixed and Switching Networks
, 2003
"... The work of this paper is inspired by the flocking phenomenon observed in Reynolds (1987). We introduce a class of local control laws for a group of mobile agents that result in: (i) global alignment of their velocity vectors, (ii) convergence of their speeds to a common one, (iii) collision avoidan ..."
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Cited by 73 (7 self)
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The work of this paper is inspired by the flocking phenomenon observed in Reynolds (1987). We introduce a class of local control laws for a group of mobile agents that result in: (i) global alignment of their velocity vectors, (ii) convergence of their speeds to a common one, (iii) collision avoidance, and (iv) minimization of the agents artificial potential energy. These are made possible through local control action by exploiting the algebraic graph theoretic properties of the underlying interconnection graph. Algebraic connectivity a#ects the performance and robustness properties of the overall closed loop system. We show how the stability of the flocking motion of the group is directly associated with the connectivity properties of the interconnection network and is robust to arbitrary switching of the network topology.
Stable Flocking of Mobile Agents, Part II: Dynamic Topology
 In IEEE Conference on Decision and Control
, 2003
"... This is the second of a twopart paper, investigating the stability properties of a system of multiple mobile agents with double integrator dynamics. In this second part, we allow the topology of the control interconnections between the agents in the group to vary with time. Specifically, the contro ..."
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Cited by 49 (5 self)
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This is the second of a twopart paper, investigating the stability properties of a system of multiple mobile agents with double integrator dynamics. In this second part, we allow the topology of the control interconnections between the agents in the group to vary with time. Specifically, the control law of an agent depends on the state of a set of agents that are within a certain neighborhood around it. As the agents move around, this set changes giving rise to a dynamic control interconnection topology and a switching control law. This control law consists of a a combination of attractive/repulsive and alignment forces. The former ensure collision avoidance and cohesion of the group and the latter result to all agents attaining a common heading angle, exhibiting flocking motion. Despite the use of only local information and the time varying nature of agent interaction which affects the local controllers, flocking motion can still be established, as long as connectivity in the neighboring graph is maintained.
Formation control: A review and a new consideration
 IN 2005 IEEE/RSJ INT. CONF. INTELLIG. ROBOTS AND SYST
, 2005
"... In this paper, we presented a review on the current control issues and strategies on a group of unmanned autonomous vehicles/robots formation. Formation control has broad applications and becomes an active research topic in the recent years. In this paper, we attempt to review the key issues in form ..."
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Cited by 12 (0 self)
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In this paper, we presented a review on the current control issues and strategies on a group of unmanned autonomous vehicles/robots formation. Formation control has broad applications and becomes an active research topic in the recent years. In this paper, we attempt to review the key issues in formation control with a focus on the main control strategies for formation control under different kinds of scenarios. Then, we point out some important open questions and the possible future research directions on formation control. This paper contributes with a new and interesting consideration on formation control and its application in distributed parameter systems. We pointed out that formation control should be classified as formation regulation control and formation tracking control, similar to regulator and tracker in conventional control.
Flocking in Teams of Nonholonomic Agents
 Cooperative Control, Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences
, 2003
"... Summary. The motion of a group of nonholonomic mobile agents is synchronized using local control laws. This synchronization strategy is inspired by the early flocking model proposed by Reynolds [22] and following work [29, 8]. The control laws presented ensure that all agent headings and speeds conv ..."
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Cited by 11 (1 self)
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Summary. The motion of a group of nonholonomic mobile agents is synchronized using local control laws. This synchronization strategy is inspired by the early flocking model proposed by Reynolds [22] and following work [29, 8]. The control laws presented ensure that all agent headings and speeds converge asymptotically to the same value and collisions between the agents are avoided. The stability of this type of motion is closely related to the connectivity properties of the underlying interconnection graph. Proof techniques are based on LaSalle’s invariant principle and algebraic graph theory and the results are verified in numerical simulations. 1
Stability of Flocking Motion
, 2003
"... This paper in vestigates the aggregated stability properties of of a system of multiple mobileagen ts described by simpledynleS55 systems. Theagen ts are steered through local coordin2Sfi5 con trol laws that arise as a combin7 tion of attractive/repulsivean align2F t forces. These forces ences colli ..."
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Cited by 6 (0 self)
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This paper in vestigates the aggregated stability properties of of a system of multiple mobileagen ts described by simpledynleS55 systems. Theagen ts are steered through local coordin2Sfi5 con trol laws that arise as a combin7 tion of attractive/repulsivean align2F t forces. These forces ences collision avoidan e a n cohesion of the groupan result to all agen ts attain[S a common headin anin exhibitin flockin motion Two cases are con197 ered: in the first, position in[]5 ation from all group members is available to each agen t; in the seconc each agen t has access to position i n ormation of on( the agen ts layin in ide its n ighborhood. It is then shown that regardless ofan y arbitrary chan[1 in thenS[9 bor set, the flockinmotion remain stable aslon as the graph that describes the n ighborin relation amon the agen ts in the group is always con9 cted. 1
Flocks of Autonomous Mobile Agents 1
"... Abstract—The motion of a group of nonholonomic mobile agents is synchronized using local control laws. This synchronization strategy is inspired by the early flocking model proposed by Reynolds [17] and following work [22, 8]. The control laws presented ensure that all agent headings and speeds conv ..."
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Abstract—The motion of a group of nonholonomic mobile agents is synchronized using local control laws. This synchronization strategy is inspired by the early flocking model proposed by Reynolds [17] and following work [22, 8]. The control laws presented ensure that all agent headings and speeds converge asymptotically to the same value and collisions between the agents are avoided. The stability of this type of motion is closely related to the connectivity properties of the underlying interconnection graph. Proof techniques are based on LaSalle’s invariant principle and algebraic graph theory and the results are verified in numerical simulations. Keywords—Cooperative control, multiagent systems, flocking motion. I.