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Safety Verification of Hybrid Systems Using Barrier Certificates
 In Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control
, 2004
"... This paper presents a novel methodology for safety verification of hybrid systems. For proving that all trajectories of a hybrid system do not enter an unsafe region, the proposed method uses a function of state termed a barrier certificate. The zero level set of a barrier certificate separates ..."
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Cited by 57 (3 self)
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This paper presents a novel methodology for safety verification of hybrid systems. For proving that all trajectories of a hybrid system do not enter an unsafe region, the proposed method uses a function of state termed a barrier certificate. The zero level set of a barrier certificate separates the unsafe region from all possible trajectories starting from a given set of initial conditions, hence providing an exact proof of system safety. No explicit computation of reachable sets is required in the construction of barrier certificates, which makes nonlinearity, uncertainty, and constraints can be handled directly within this framework.
Bisimilar Linear Systems
, 2001
"... The notion of bisimulation in theoretical computer science is one of the main complexity reduction methods for the analysis and synthesis of labeled transition systems. Bisimulations are special quotients of the state space that preserve many important properties expressible in temporal logics, and, ..."
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Cited by 45 (11 self)
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The notion of bisimulation in theoretical computer science is one of the main complexity reduction methods for the analysis and synthesis of labeled transition systems. Bisimulations are special quotients of the state space that preserve many important properties expressible in temporal logics, and, in particular, reachability. In this paper, the framework of bisimilar transition systems is applied to various transition systems that are generated by linear control systems. Given a discretetime or continuoustime linear system, and a finite observation map, we characterize linear quotient maps that result in quotient transition systems that are bisimilar to the original system. Interestingly, the characterizations for discretetime systems are more restrictive than for continuoustime systems, due to the existence of an atomic time step. We show that computing the coarsest bisimulation, which results in maximum complexity reduction, corresponds to computing the maximal controlled or reachability invariant subspace inside the kernel of the observations map. These results establish strong connections between complexity reduction concepts in control theory and computer science.
Differential Dynamic Logic for Hybrid Systems
, 2007
"... Hybrid systems are models for complex physical systems and are defined as dynamical systems with interacting discrete transitions and continuous evolutions along differential equations. With the goal of developing a theoretical and practical foundation for deductive verification of hybrid systems, ..."
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Cited by 42 (31 self)
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Hybrid systems are models for complex physical systems and are defined as dynamical systems with interacting discrete transitions and continuous evolutions along differential equations. With the goal of developing a theoretical and practical foundation for deductive verification of hybrid systems, we introduce a dynamic logic for hybrid programs, which is a program notation for hybrid systems. As a verification technique that is suitable for automation, we introduce a free variable proof calculus with a novel combination of realvalued free variables and Skolemisation for lifting quantifier elimination for real arithmetic to dynamic logic. The calculus is compositional, i.e., it reduces properties of hybrid programs to properties of their parts. Our main result proves that this calculus axiomatises the transition behaviour of hybrid systems completely relative to differential equations. In a case study with cooperating traffic agents of the European Train Control System, we further show that our calculus is wellsuited for verifying realistic hybrid systems with parametric system dynamics.
Adaptive RRTs for validating hybrid robotic control systems
 International Workshop on the Algorithmic Foundations of Robotics
, 2004
"... Abstract. Most robot control and planning algorithms are complex, involving a combination of reactive controllers, behaviorbased controllers, and deliberative controllers. The switching between different behaviors or controllers makes such systems hybrid, i.e. combining discrete and continuous dyna ..."
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Cited by 40 (3 self)
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Abstract. Most robot control and planning algorithms are complex, involving a combination of reactive controllers, behaviorbased controllers, and deliberative controllers. The switching between different behaviors or controllers makes such systems hybrid, i.e. combining discrete and continuous dynamics. While proofs of convergence, robustness and stability are often available for simple controllers under a carefully crafted set of operating conditions, there is no systematic approach to experimenting with, testing, and validating the performance of complex hybrid control systems. In this paper we address the problem of generating sets of conditions (inputs, disturbances, and parameters) that might be used to ”test ” a given hybrid system. We use the method of Rapidly exploring Random Trees (RRTs) to obtain test inputs. We extend the traditional RRT, which only searches over continuous inputs, to a new algorithm, called the Rapidly exploring Random Forest of Trees (RRFT), which can also search over time invariant parameters by growing a set of trees for each parameter value choice. We introduce new measures for coverage and tree growth that allows us to dynamically allocate our resources among the set of trees and to plant new trees when the growth rate of existing ones slows to an unacceptable level. We demonstrate the application of RRFT to testing and validation of aerial robotic control systems. 1
Computing differential invariants of hybrid systems as fixedpoints
, 2008
"... Abstract. We introduce a fixedpoint algorithm for verifying safety properties of hybrid systems with differential equations whose righthand sides are polynomials in the state variables. In order to verify nontrivial systems without solving their differential equations and without numerical errors, ..."
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Cited by 31 (17 self)
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Abstract. We introduce a fixedpoint algorithm for verifying safety properties of hybrid systems with differential equations whose righthand sides are polynomials in the state variables. In order to verify nontrivial systems without solving their differential equations and without numerical errors, we use a continuous generalization of induction, for which our algorithm computes the required differential invariants. As a means for combining local differential invariants into global system invariants in a sound way, our fixedpoint algorithm works with a compositional verification logic for hybrid systems. To improve the verification power, we further introduce a saturation procedure that refines the system dynamics successively with differential invariants until safety becomes provable. By complementing our symbolic verification algorithm with a robust version of numerical falsification, we obtain a fast and sound verification procedure. We verify roundabout maneuvers in air traffic management and collision avoidance in train control.
On efficient representation and computation of reachable sets for hybrid systems
 In HSCC’2003, LNCS 2289
, 2003
"... Abstract. Computing reachable sets is an essential step in most analysis and synthesis techniques for hybrid systems. The representation of these sets has a deciding impact on the computational complexity and thus the applicability of these techniques. This paper presents a new approach for approxim ..."
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Cited by 28 (6 self)
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Abstract. Computing reachable sets is an essential step in most analysis and synthesis techniques for hybrid systems. The representation of these sets has a deciding impact on the computational complexity and thus the applicability of these techniques. This paper presents a new approach for approximating reachable sets using oriented rectangular hulls (ORHs), the orientations of which are determined by singular value decompositions of sample covariance matrices for sets of reachable states. The orientations keep the overapproximation of the reachable sets small in most cases with a complexity of low polynomial order with respect to the dimension of the continuous state space. We show how the use of ORHs can improve the efficiency of reachable set computation significantly for hybrid systems with nonlinear continuous dynamics.
A framework for worstcase and stochastic safety verification using barrier certificates
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATIC CONTROL
, 2007
"... This paper presents a methodology for safety verification of continuous and hybrid systems in the worstcase and stochastic settings. In the worstcase setting, a function of state termed barrier certificate is used to certify that all trajectories of the system starting from a given initial set do ..."
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Cited by 28 (1 self)
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This paper presents a methodology for safety verification of continuous and hybrid systems in the worstcase and stochastic settings. In the worstcase setting, a function of state termed barrier certificate is used to certify that all trajectories of the system starting from a given initial set do not enter an unsafe region. No explicit computation of reachable sets is required in the construction of barrier certificates, which makes it possible to handle nonlinearity, uncertainty, and constraints directly within this framework. In the stochastic setting, our method computes an upper bound on the probability that a trajectory of the system reaches the unsafe set, a bound whose validity is proven by the existence of a barrier certificate. For polynomial systems, barrier certificates can be constructed using convex optimization, and hence the method is computationally tractable. Some examples are provided to illustrate the use of the method.
Translating DiscreteTime Simulink to Lustre
 In: Third International ACM Conference on Embedded Software, Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2003
"... We present a method of translating discretetime Simulink models to Lustre programs. Our method consists of three steps: type inference, clock inference and hierarchical bottomup translation. In the process, we formalize typing and timing mechanisms of Simulink. The method has been implemented in a ..."
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Cited by 26 (7 self)
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We present a method of translating discretetime Simulink models to Lustre programs. Our method consists of three steps: type inference, clock inference and hierarchical bottomup translation. In the process, we formalize typing and timing mechanisms of Simulink. The method has been implemented in a prototype tool called S2L. The tool has been used to translate part of an industrial automotive controller provided by Audi. 1
On systematic simulation of open continuous systems
 IN: HYBRID SYSTEMS: COMPUTATION AND CONTROL. VOLUME 2623 OF LNCS
, 2003
"... In this paper we investigate a new technique to determine whether an open continuous system behaves correctly for all admissible input signals. This technique is based on a discretization of the set of possible input signals, and on storing neighborhoods of points reachable by trajectories induced b ..."
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Cited by 22 (2 self)
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In this paper we investigate a new technique to determine whether an open continuous system behaves correctly for all admissible input signals. This technique is based on a discretization of the set of possible input signals, and on storing neighborhoods of points reachable by trajectories induced by those signals. Alternatively, this technique, inspired by automata theory, can be seen as an attempt to make simulation a more systematic activity by finding a small set of input signals such that the behaviors they induce “cover” the whole reachable state space.
Safety verification using barrier certificates
 In HSCC, volume 2993 of LNCS
, 2004
"... Abstract — We develop a new method for safety verification of stochastic systems based on functions of states termed barrier certificates. Given a stochastic continuous or hybrid system and sets of initial and unsafe states, our method computes an upper bound on the probability that a trajectory of ..."
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Cited by 19 (4 self)
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Abstract — We develop a new method for safety verification of stochastic systems based on functions of states termed barrier certificates. Given a stochastic continuous or hybrid system and sets of initial and unsafe states, our method computes an upper bound on the probability that a trajectory of the system reaches the unsafe set, a bound whose validity is proven by the existence of a barrier certificate. For polynomial systems, both the upper bound and its corresponding barrier certificate can be computed using convex optimization, and hence the method is computationally tractable. I.