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862
A Modal Logic for Coalitional Power in Games
, 2002
"... We present a modal logic for reasoning about what groups of agents can bring about by collective action. Given a set of states, we introduce game frames which associate with every state a strategic game among the agents. Game frames are essentially extensive games of perfect information with simulta ..."
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Cited by 140 (5 self)
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We present a modal logic for reasoning about what groups of agents can bring about by collective action. Given a set of states, we introduce game frames which associate with every state a strategic game among the agents. Game frames are essentially extensive games of perfect information with simultaneous actions, where every action profile is associated with a new state, the outcome of the game. A coalition of players is effective for a set of states # in a game if the coalition can guarantee the outcome of the game to lie in # . We propose a modal logic (Coalition Logic) to formalize reasoning about effectivity in game frames, where #### expresses that coalition # is effective for #. An axiomatization is presented and completeness proved. Coalition Logic provides a unifying gametheoretic view of modal logic: Since nondeterministic processes and extensive games without parallel moves emerge as particular instances of game frames, normal and nonnormal modal logics correspond to 1 and 2player versions of Coalition Logic. The satisfiability problem for Coalition Logic is shown to be PSPACEcomplete.
Visibly pushdown languages
, 2004
"... Abstract. We study congruences on words in order to characterize the class of visibly pushdown languages (Vpl), a subclass of contextfree languages. For any language L, we define a natural congruence on words that resembles the syntactic congruence for regular languages, such that this congruence i ..."
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Cited by 134 (15 self)
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Abstract. We study congruences on words in order to characterize the class of visibly pushdown languages (Vpl), a subclass of contextfree languages. For any language L, we define a natural congruence on words that resembles the syntactic congruence for regular languages, such that this congruence is of finite index if, and only if, L is a Vpl. We then study the problem of finding canonical minimal deterministic automata for Vpls. Though Vpls in general do not have unique minimal automata, we consider a subclass of VPAs called kmodule singleentry VPAs that correspond to programs with recursive procedures without input parameters, and show that the class of wellmatched Vpls do indeed have unique minimal kmodule singleentry automata. We also give a polynomial time algorithm that minimizes such kmodule singleentry VPAs. 1 Introduction The class of visibly pushdown languages (Vpl), introduced in [1], is a subclassof contextfree languages accepted by pushdown automata in which the input letter determines the type of operation permitted on the stack. Visibly pushdown languages are closed under all boolean operations, and problems such as inclusion, that are undecidable for contextfree languages, are decidable for Vpl. Vpls are relevant to several applications that use contextfree languages suchas the modelchecking of software programs using their pushdown models [13]. Recent work has shown applications in other contexts: in modeling semanticsof effects in processing XML streams [4], in game semantics for programming languages [5], and in identifying larger classes of pushdown specifications thatadmit decidable problems for infinite games on pushdown graphs [6].
Games that agents play: A formal framework for dialogues between autonomous agents
 Journal of Logic, Language and Information
, 2001
"... We present a logicbased formalism for modeling of dialogues between intelligent and autonomous software agents, building on a theory of abstract dialogue games which we present. The formalism enables representation of complex dialogues as sequences of moves in a combination of dialogue games, and a ..."
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Cited by 121 (34 self)
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We present a logicbased formalism for modeling of dialogues between intelligent and autonomous software agents, building on a theory of abstract dialogue games which we present. The formalism enables representation of complex dialogues as sequences of moves in a combination of dialogue games, and allows dialogues to be embedded inside one another. The formalism is computational and its modular nature enables dierent types of dialogues to be represented.
Concurrent Dynamic Epistemic Logic
, 2003
"... When giving an nalysis of knowledge in multiagent systems, one needs a framework in which higherorder information and its dynamics can both be represented. A recent tradition stoxting in origina work by Plaza treats all of knowledge, higherorder knowledge, and its dynamics on the sae foot. Our ..."
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Cited by 116 (23 self)
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When giving an nalysis of knowledge in multiagent systems, one needs a framework in which higherorder information and its dynamics can both be represented. A recent tradition stoxting in origina work by Plaza treats all of knowledge, higherorder knowledge, and its dynamics on the sae foot. Our work is in that tradition. It also fits in approaches that not only dynaize the epistemics, but also epistemize the dynamics: the ac tions that (groups of) agents perform oxe epistemic actions. Different agents may have different information about which action is taking place, including higherorder information. We demonstrate that such information changes require subtle descriptions. Our contribution is to provide a complete axiomatization for n action language of vn Ditmoxsch, where an action is interpreted as a relation between epistemic states (pointed models) and sets of epistemic states. The applicability of the framework is found in every context where multiagent strategic decision making is at stake, and aready demonstrated in gaelike scenoxios such as Cluedo and coxd games.
Time and time again: The many ways to represent time
 International Journal of Intelligent Systems
, 1991
"... issues remain essentially the same. One of the most crucial problems in any computer system that involves representing the world is the representation of time. This includes applications such as databases, simulation, expert systems and applications of Artificial Intelligence in general. In this bri ..."
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Cited by 108 (0 self)
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issues remain essentially the same. One of the most crucial problems in any computer system that involves representing the world is the representation of time. This includes applications such as databases, simulation, expert systems and applications of Artificial Intelligence in general. In this brief paper, I will give a survey of the basic techniques available for representing time, and then talk about temporal reasoning in a general setting as needed in AI applications. Quite different representations of time are usable depending on the assumptions that can be made about the temporal information to be represented. The most crucial issue is the degree of certainty one can assume. Can one assume that a time stamp can be assigned to each event, or barring that, that the events are fully ordered? Or can we only assume that a partial ordering of events is known? Can events be simultaneous? Can they overlap in time and yet not be simultaneous? If they are not instantaneous, do we know the durations of events? Different answers to each of these questions allow very different representations of time. I. Representations Based on Dating Schemes A good representation of time for instantaneous events, if it is possible, is using an absolute dating system. This involves time stamping each event with an absolute realtime, say taken off the system clock
Algebraic Reasoning for Probabilistic Concurrent Systems
 Proc. IFIP TC2 Working Conference on Programming Concepts and Methods
, 1990
"... We extend Milner's SCCS to obtain a calculus, PCCS, for reasoning about communicating probabilistic processes. In particular, the nondeterministic process summation operator of SCCS is replaced with a probabilistic one, in which the probability of behaving like a particular summand is given exp ..."
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Cited by 94 (5 self)
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We extend Milner's SCCS to obtain a calculus, PCCS, for reasoning about communicating probabilistic processes. In particular, the nondeterministic process summation operator of SCCS is replaced with a probabilistic one, in which the probability of behaving like a particular summand is given explicitly. The operational semantics for PCCS is based on the notion of probabilistic derivation, and is given structurally as a set of inference rules. We then present an equational theory for PCCS based on probabilistic bisimulation, an extension of Milner's bisimulation proposed by Larsen and Skou. We provide the first axiomatization of probabilistic bisimulation, a subset of which is relatively complete for finitestate probabilistic processes. In the probabilistic case, a notion of processes with almost identical behavior (i.e., with probability 1 \Gamma ffl, for ffl sufficiently small) appears to be more useful in practice than a notion of equivalence, since the latter is often too restricti...
Structural Properties of XPath Fragments
 IN ICDT
, 2003
"... We study structural properties of each of the main sublanguages of XPath [8] commonly used in practice. First, we characterize the expressive power of these language fragments in terms of both logics and tree patterns. Second, we investigate closure properties, focusing on the ability to perform bas ..."
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Cited by 90 (7 self)
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We study structural properties of each of the main sublanguages of XPath [8] commonly used in practice. First, we characterize the expressive power of these language fragments in terms of both logics and tree patterns. Second, we investigate closure properties, focusing on the ability to perform basic Boolean operations while remaining within the fragment. We give a complete picture of the closure properties of these fragments, treating XPath expressions both as functions of arbitrary nodes in a document tree, and as functions that are applied only at the root of the tree. Finally, we provide sound and complete axiom systems and normal forms for several of these fragments. These results are useful for simplification of XPath expressions and optimization of XML queries.
Automatic OBDDbased Generation of Universal Plans in NonDeterministic Domains
, 1998
"... Most real world environments are nondeterministic. Automatic plan formation in nondeterministic domains is, however, still an open problem. In this paper we present a practical algorithm for the automatic generation of solutions to planning problems in nondeterministic domains. Our approach h ..."
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Cited by 88 (20 self)
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Most real world environments are nondeterministic. Automatic plan formation in nondeterministic domains is, however, still an open problem. In this paper we present a practical algorithm for the automatic generation of solutions to planning problems in nondeterministic domains. Our approach has the following main features. First, the planner generates Universal Plans, and exploits the compactness of OBDD's (Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams) to express in a practical way plans of extremely large size. Second, the planner generates plans which are guaranteed to achieve the goal in spite of nondeterminism, if such plans exist. Otherwise, the planner generates plans which encode iterative trialanderror strategies (e.g. try to pick up a block until succeed), which are guaranteed to achieve the goal under the assumption that if there is a nondeterministic possibility for the iteration to terminate, this will not be ignored forever. Third, the implementation of the pla...
Logics of communication and change
 Information and Computation
, 2005
"... Current dynamic epistemic logics often become cumbersome and opaque when common knowledge is added for groups of agents. Still, postconditions regarding common knowledge express the essence of what communication achieves. We propose new systems that extend the underlying static epistemic languages i ..."
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Cited by 87 (41 self)
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Current dynamic epistemic logics often become cumbersome and opaque when common knowledge is added for groups of agents. Still, postconditions regarding common knowledge express the essence of what communication achieves. We propose new systems that extend the underlying static epistemic languages in such a way that completeness proofs for the full dynamic systems can be obtained by perspicuous reduction axioms. Also, we include factual alteration, rather than just information change, which allows us to cover a much wider range of phenomena in the area of communication and change. 1