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Hierarchical MetaLogics: Intuitions, Proof Theory and Semantics
, 1991
"... The goal of this paper is to provide a possible foundation for metareasoning in the fields of artificial intelligence and computer science. We first investigate the relationship that we want to hold between metatheory and objecttheory. We then outline a methodology in which reflection rules serve ..."
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The goal of this paper is to provide a possible foundation for metareasoning in the fields of artificial intelligence and computer science. We first investigate the relationship that we want to hold between metatheory and objecttheory. We then outline a methodology in which reflection rules serve to deductively generate a metatheory from its object theory. Finally, we apply this methodology and define a hierarchical metalogic, namely a formal system generating an entire metahierarchy, which is sound and complete with respect to a semantics formalising the desired meta/object relationship.
Lectures on proof theory
 in Proc. Summer School in Logic, Leeds 67
, 1968
"... This is a survey of some of the principal developments in proof theory from its inception in the 1920s, at the hands of David Hilbert, up to the 1960s. Hilbert's aim was to use this as a tool in his nitary consistency program to eliminate the \actual in nite " in mathematics from proofs of purely ni ..."
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This is a survey of some of the principal developments in proof theory from its inception in the 1920s, at the hands of David Hilbert, up to the 1960s. Hilbert's aim was to use this as a tool in his nitary consistency program to eliminate the \actual in nite " in mathematics from proofs of purely nitary statements. One of the main approaches that turned out to be the most useful in pursuit of this program was that due to Gerhard Gentzen, in the 1930s, via his calculi of \sequents" and his CutElimination Theorem for them. Following that we trace how and why prima facie in nitary concepts, such as ordinals, and in nitary methods, such as the use of in nitely long proofs, gradually came to dominate prooftheoretical developments. In this rst lecture I will give anoverview of the developments in proof theory since Hilbert's initiative in establishing the subject in the 1920s. For this purpose I am following the rst part of a series of expository lectures that I gave for the Logic Colloquium `94 held in ClermontFerrand 2123 July 1994, but haven't published. The theme of my lectures there was that although Hilbert established his theory of proofs as a part of his foundational program and, for philosophical reasons whichwe shall get into, aimed to have it developed in a completely nitistic way, the actual work in proof theory This is the rst of three lectures that I delivered at the conference, Proof Theory: History
A ModelTheoretic Approach to Ordinal Analysis
 Bulletin of Symbolic Logic
, 1997
"... . We describe a modeltheoretic approach to ordinal analysis via the finite combinatorial notion of an #large set of natural numbers. In contrast to syntactic approaches that use cut elimination, this approach involves constructing finite sets of numbers with combinatorial properties that, in no ..."
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. We describe a modeltheoretic approach to ordinal analysis via the finite combinatorial notion of an #large set of natural numbers. In contrast to syntactic approaches that use cut elimination, this approach involves constructing finite sets of numbers with combinatorial properties that, in nonstandard instances, give rise to models of the theory being analyzed. This method is applied to obtain ordinal analyses of a number of interesting subsystems of first and secondorder arithmetic. x1. Introduction. Two of proof theory's defining goals are the justification of classical theories on constructive grounds, and the extraction of constructive information from classical proofs. Since Gentzen, ordinal analysis has been a major component in these pursuits, and the assignment of recursive ordinals to theories has proven to be an illuminating way of measuring their constructive strength. The traditional approach to ordinal analysis, which uses cutelimination procedures to transfor...
On Founding the Theory of Algorithms
, 1998
"... machines and implementations The first definition of an abstract machine was given by Turing, in the classic [20]. Without repeating here the wellknown definition (e.g., see [6]), 13 we recall that each Turing machine M is equipped with a "semiinfinite tape" which it uses both to compute and al ..."
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machines and implementations The first definition of an abstract machine was given by Turing, in the classic [20]. Without repeating here the wellknown definition (e.g., see [6]), 13 we recall that each Turing machine M is equipped with a "semiinfinite tape" which it uses both to compute and also to communicate with its environment: To determine the value f(n) (if any) of the partial function 14 f : N * N computed by M , we put n on the tape in some standard way, e.g., by placing n + 1 consecutive 1s at its beginning; we start the machine in some specified, initial, internal state q 0 and looking at the leftmost end of the tape; and we wait until the machine stops (if it does), at which time the value f(n) can be read off the tape, by counting the successive 1s at the left end. Turing argued that the numbertheoretic functions which can (in principle) be computed by any deterministic, physical device are exactly those which can be computed by a Turing machine, and the correspon...
Proof theory of reflection
 Annals of Pure and Applied Logic
, 1994
"... The paper contains proof–theoretic investigations on extensions of Kripke–Platek set theory, KP, which accommodate first order reflection. Ordinal analyses for such theories are obtained by devising cut elimination procedures for infinitary calculi of ramified set theory with Πn reflection rules. Th ..."
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The paper contains proof–theoretic investigations on extensions of Kripke–Platek set theory, KP, which accommodate first order reflection. Ordinal analyses for such theories are obtained by devising cut elimination procedures for infinitary calculi of ramified set theory with Πn reflection rules. This leads to consistency proofs for the theories KP + Πn–reflection using a small amount of arithmetic (PRA) and the well–foundedness of a certain ordinal notation system with respect to primitive recursive descending sequences. Regarding future work, we intend to avail ourselves of these new cut elimination techniques to attain an ordinal analysis of Π 1 2 comprehension by approaching Π1 2 comprehension through transfinite levels of reflection. 1
Methods of CutElimination
 PROJECTION, LECTURE
"... This short report presents the main topics of methods of cutelimination which will be presented in the course at the ESSLLI'99. It gives a short introduction addressing the problem of cutelimination in general. Furthermore we give a brief description of several methods and refer to other papers ad ..."
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This short report presents the main topics of methods of cutelimination which will be presented in the course at the ESSLLI'99. It gives a short introduction addressing the problem of cutelimination in general. Furthermore we give a brief description of several methods and refer to other papers added to the course material.
Automated Generation of Analytic Calculi for Logics with Linearity
 Proceedings of CSL’04, vol. 3210 LNCS
, 2004
"... Abstract. We show how to automatically generate analytic hypersequent calculi for a large class of logics containing the linearity axiom (lin) (A ⊃ B) ∨ (B ⊃ A) starting from existing (singleconclusion) cutfree sequent calculi for the corresponding logics without (lin). As a corollary, we define ..."
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Abstract. We show how to automatically generate analytic hypersequent calculi for a large class of logics containing the linearity axiom (lin) (A ⊃ B) ∨ (B ⊃ A) starting from existing (singleconclusion) cutfree sequent calculi for the corresponding logics without (lin). As a corollary, we define an analytic calculus for Strict Monoidal Tnorm based Logic SMTL. 1
The Realm of Ordinal Analysis
 SETS AND PROOFS. PROCEEDINGS OF THE LOGIC COLLOQUIUM '97
, 1997
"... A central theme running through all the main areas of Mathematical Logic is the classification of sets, functions or theories, by means of transfinite hierarchies whose ordinal levels measure their `rank' or `complexity' in some sense appropriate to the underlying context. In Proof Theory this is ma ..."
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A central theme running through all the main areas of Mathematical Logic is the classification of sets, functions or theories, by means of transfinite hierarchies whose ordinal levels measure their `rank' or `complexity' in some sense appropriate to the underlying context. In Proof Theory this is manifest in the assignment of `proof theoretic ordinals' to theories, gauging their `consistency strength' and `computational power'. Ordinaltheoretic proof theory came into existence in 1936, springing forth from Gentzen's head in the course of his consistency proof of arithmetic. To put it roughly, ordinal analyses attach ordinals in a given representation system to formal theories. Though this area of mathematical logic has is roots in Hilbert's "Beweistheorie "  the aim of which was to lay to rest all worries about the foundations of mathematics once and for all by securing mathematics via an absolute proof of consistency  technical results in pro...
A Theory and its Metatheory in FS 0
"... . Feferman has proposed FS 0 , a theory of finitary inductive systems, as a framework theory that allows a user to reason both in and about an encoded theory. I look here at how practical FS 0 really is. To this end I formalise a sequent calculus presentation of classical propositional logic, and sh ..."
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. Feferman has proposed FS 0 , a theory of finitary inductive systems, as a framework theory that allows a user to reason both in and about an encoded theory. I look here at how practical FS 0 really is. To this end I formalise a sequent calculus presentation of classical propositional logic, and show this can be used for work in both the theory and the metatheory. the latter is illustrated with a discussion of a proof of Gentzen's Hauptsatz. Contents x 1 Introduction 2 x 1.1 Background : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 x 1.2 Outline of paper : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 x 2 The theory FS 0 and notational conventions 4 x 2.1 What is FS 0 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4 x 3 An informal description of Gentzen's calculus 5 x 3.1 The language : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5 x 3.2 The calculus for classical propositional logic : : : : : : : : : : : : 6 x 4 Formalising the ...
Hierarchies of Decidable Extensions of Bounded Quantification
 IN 22ND ACM SYMP. ON PRINCIPLES OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
, 1994
"... The system F , the wellknown secondorder polymorphic typed calculus with subtyping and bounded universal type quantification [CW85, BL90, CG92, Pie92, CMMS94], appears to be undecidable [Pie92] because of undecidability of its subtyping component. Attempts were made to obtain decidable type sys ..."
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The system F , the wellknown secondorder polymorphic typed calculus with subtyping and bounded universal type quantification [CW85, BL90, CG92, Pie92, CMMS94], appears to be undecidable [Pie92] because of undecidability of its subtyping component. Attempts were made to obtain decidable type systems with subtyping by weakening F [CP94, KS92], and also by reinforcing or extending it [Vor94a, Vor94b, Vor95]. However, for the moment, these extensions lack the important prooftheoretic minimum type property, which holds for F and guarantees that each typable term has the minimum type, being a subtype of any other type of the term in the same context [CG92, Vor94c]. As a preparation step to introducing the extensions of F with the minimum type property and the decidable term typing relation (which we do in [Vor94e]), we define and study here the hierarchies of decidable extensions of the F subtyping relation. We demonstrate conditions providing that each theory in a hierarchy: 1. ext...