Results 1  10
of
19
Incremental Interpretation
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1991
"... We present a system for the incremental interpretation of naturallanguage utterances in context. The main goal of the work is to account for the influences of context on interpretation, while preserving compositionality to the extent possible. To achieve this goal, we introduce a representational d ..."
Abstract

Cited by 20 (0 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We present a system for the incremental interpretation of naturallanguage utterances in context. The main goal of the work is to account for the influences of context on interpretation, while preserving compositionality to the extent possible. To achieve this goal, we introduce a representational device, conditional interpretations, and a rule system for constructing them. Conditional interpretations represent the potential contributions of phrases to the interpretation of an utterance. The rules specify how phrase interpretations are combined and how they are elaborated with respect to context. The control structure defined by the rules determines the points in the interpretation process at which sufficient information becomes available to carry out specific inferential interpretation steps, such as determining the plausibility of particular referential connections or modifier attachments. We have implemented these ideas in Candide, a system for interactive acquisition of procedural ...
Scope dominance with monotone quantifiers over finite domains
 Journal of Logic, Language and Information
, 2004
"... We characterize pairs of monotone generalized quantifiers Q1 and Q2 over finite domains that give rise to an entailment relation between their two relative scope construals. This relation between quantifiers, which is referred to as scope dominance, is used for identifying entailment relations betwe ..."
Abstract

Cited by 5 (3 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We characterize pairs of monotone generalized quantifiers Q1 and Q2 over finite domains that give rise to an entailment relation between their two relative scope construals. This relation between quantifiers, which is referred to as scope dominance, is used for identifying entailment relations between the two scopal interpretations of simple sentences of the form NP1VNP2. Simple numerical or settheoretical considerations that follow from our main result are used for characterizing such relations. The variety of examples in which they hold are shown to go far beyond the familiar existentialuniversal type. 1
Multiple Negation Processing
"... This paper considers negative triggers (negative and negative quantifiers) and the interpretation of simple sentences containing more than one occurrence of those items (multiple negation sentences). In the most typical interpretations those sentences have more negative expressions than negations in ..."
Abstract

Cited by 4 (0 self)
 Add to MetaCart
This paper considers negative triggers (negative and negative quantifiers) and the interpretation of simple sentences containing more than one occurrence of those items (multiple negation sentences). In the most typical interpretations those sentences have more negative expressions than negations in their semantic representation. It is first shown that this compositionality problem remains in current approaches. A principled algorithm for deriving the representation of sentences with multiple negative quantifiers in a DRT framework (Kamp & Reyle, 1993) is then introduced. The algorithm is under the control of an online checkin, keeping the complexity of negation autoembedding below a threshold of complexity. This mechanism is seen as a competence limitation imposing (and licensing) the "abrogation of composifionality" (May 1989) observed in the socalled negative concord readings (Labov 1972, Zanuttini 1991, Ladusaw 1992). A solution to the composifionality problem is thus proposed, which is based on a control on the processing input motivated by a limitation of the processing mechanism itself.
Normal Forms for Characteristic Functions on nary Relations Abstract
, 2004
"... Functions of type 〈n 〉 are characteristic functions on nary relations. Keenan [5] established their importance for natural language semantics, by showing that natural language has many examples of irreducible type 〈n 〉 functions, i.e., functions of type 〈n 〉 that cannot be represented as compositio ..."
Abstract

Cited by 3 (0 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Functions of type 〈n 〉 are characteristic functions on nary relations. Keenan [5] established their importance for natural language semantics, by showing that natural language has many examples of irreducible type 〈n 〉 functions, i.e., functions of type 〈n 〉 that cannot be represented as compositions of unary functions. Keenan proposed some tests for reducibility, and Dekker [3] improved on these by proposing an invariance condition that characterizes the functions with a reducible counterpart with the same behaviour on product relations. The present paper generalizes the notion of reducibility (a quantifier is reducible if it can be represented as a composition of quantifiers of lesser, but not necessarily unary, types), proposes a direct criterion for reducibility, and establishes a diamond theorem and a normal form theorem for reduction. These results are then used to show that every positive 〈n〉 function has a unique representation as a composition of positive irreducible functions, and to give an algorithm for finding this representation. With these formal tools it can be established that natural language has examples of nary quantificational expressions that cannot be reduced to any composition of quantifiers of lesser degree. Accepted for publication in the Journal of Logic and Computation. 1
The Categorial FineStructure of Natural Language
, 2003
"... Categorial grammar analyzes linguistic syntax and semantics in terms of type theory and lambda calculus. A major attraction of this approach is its unifying power, as its basic function/argument structures occur across the foundations of mathematics, language and computation. This paper considers, i ..."
Abstract

Cited by 3 (1 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Categorial grammar analyzes linguistic syntax and semantics in terms of type theory and lambda calculus. A major attraction of this approach is its unifying power, as its basic function/argument structures occur across the foundations of mathematics, language and computation. This paper considers, in a light examplebased manner, where this elegant logical paradigm stands when confronted with the wear and tear of reality. Starting from a brief history of the Lambek tradition since the 1980s, we discuss three main issues: (a) the fit of the lambda calculus engine to characteristic semantic structures in natural language, (b) the coexistence of the original typetheoretic and more recent modal interpretations of categorial logics, and (c) the place of categorial grammars in the complex total architecture of natural language, which involves  amongst others  mixtures of interpretation and inference.
Irreducible Higher Order Functions in Natural Language” at www.let.uu.nl/~Berit.Gehrke/personal/lush/IHOF.pdf Emonds
, 2004
"... ..."
Types of Relations
"... Many arguments for flexible type assignment to syntactic categories have to do with the need to account for the various scopings resulting from the interaction of quantified DPs with other quantified DPs or with intensional or negated verb contexts. We will define a type for arbitrary arity relation ..."
Abstract
 Add to MetaCart
Many arguments for flexible type assignment to syntactic categories have to do with the need to account for the various scopings resulting from the interaction of quantified DPs with other quantified DPs or with intensional or negated verb contexts. We will define a type for arbitrary arity relations in polymorphic type theory. In terms of this, we develop the Boolean algebra of relations as far as needed for natural language semantics. The type for relations is flexible: it can do duty for the whole family of types t, e → t, e → e → t, and so on. If we use this flexible type for the interpretations of verbs, we can perform a ‘flexible lift ’ on DP interpretations, so that DPs get interpreted as operations on verb meanings. This leads to an elegant implementation of Keenan’s proposal for polyadic quantification in natural language (‘Beyond the Frege Boundary’). It turns out that scope reorderings are particularly easy to implement in this framework. The Frege Boundary • Standard analysis of Every lawyer cheated a firm: this states a relation between the CN property of being a lawyer and the VP property of cheating firms, namely the relation of inclusion. • Alternative analysis: look at the complex expression Every lawyer a firm, and interpret this as a function that takes a relation as its argument (a denotation of a transitive verb, such as cheated, accused, defended) and produces a truth value. • In many cases only the alternative analysis is available, e.g. Every lawyer cheated a different firm. This means that the relation C, when restricted to L × F, is an injective function. Reducible versus Irreducible Polyadic Quantifiers Cases where the standard analysis is available involve reducible or Fregean functions, cases where only the alternative analysis is available are irreducible.