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42
New points of view in knot theory
 Bull. Am. Math. Soc., New Ser
, 1993
"... In this article we shall give an account of certain developments in knot theory which followed upon the discovery of the Jones polynomial [Jo3] in 1984. The focus of our account will be recent glimmerings of understanding of the topological meaning of the new invariants. A second theme will be the c ..."
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Cited by 94 (0 self)
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In this article we shall give an account of certain developments in knot theory which followed upon the discovery of the Jones polynomial [Jo3] in 1984. The focus of our account will be recent glimmerings of understanding of the topological meaning of the new invariants. A second theme will be the central role that braid
The computational Complexity of Knot and Link Problems
 J. ACM
, 1999
"... We consider the problem of deciding whether a polygonal knot in 3dimensional Euclidean space is unknotted, capable of being continuously deformed without selfintersection so that it lies in a plane. We show that this problem, unknotting problem is in NP. We also consider the problem, unknotting pr ..."
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Cited by 55 (6 self)
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We consider the problem of deciding whether a polygonal knot in 3dimensional Euclidean space is unknotted, capable of being continuously deformed without selfintersection so that it lies in a plane. We show that this problem, unknotting problem is in NP. We also consider the problem, unknotting problem of determining whether two or more such polygons can be split, or continuously deformed without selfintersection so that they occupy both sides of a plane without intersecting it. We show that it also is in NP. Finally, we show that the problem of determining the genus of a polygonal knot (a generalization of the problem of determining whether it is unknotted) is in PSPACE. We also give exponential worstcase running time bounds for deterministic algorithms to solve each of these problems. These algorithms are based on the use of normal surfaces and decision procedures due to W. Haken, with recent extensions by W. Jaco and J. L. Tollefson.
0Efficient Triangulations of 3Manifolds
 TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY
, 2002
"... 0–efficient triangulations of 3–manifolds are defined and studied. It is shown that any triangulation of a closed, orientable, irreducible 3–manifold M can be modified to a 0–efficient triangulation or M can be shown to be one of the manifolds S3, RP3 or L(3, 1). Similarly, any triangulation of a c ..."
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Cited by 44 (9 self)
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0–efficient triangulations of 3–manifolds are defined and studied. It is shown that any triangulation of a closed, orientable, irreducible 3–manifold M can be modified to a 0–efficient triangulation or M can be shown to be one of the manifolds S3, RP3 or L(3, 1). Similarly, any triangulation of a compact, orientable, irreducible, ∂–irreducible 3–manifold can be modified to a 0–efficient triangulation. The notion of a 0–efficient ideal triangulation is defined. It is shown if M is a compact, orientable, irreducible, ∂–irreducible 3–manifold having no essential annuli and distinct from the 3–cell, then ◦ M admits an ideal triangulation; furthermore, it is shown that any ideal triangulation of such a 3–manifold can be modified to a 0–efficient ideal triangulation. A 0–efficient triangulation of a closed manifold has only one vertex or the manifold is S3 and the triangulation has precisely two vertices. 0–efficient triangulations of 3–manifolds with boundary, and distinct from the 3–cell, have all their vertices in the boundary and then just one vertex in each boundary
The number of Reidemeister Moves Needed for Unknotting
, 2008
"... There is a positive constant c1 such that for any diagram D representing the unknot, there is a sequence of at most 2 c1n Reidemeister moves that will convert it to a trivial knot diagram, where n is the number of crossings in D. A similar result holds for elementary moves on a polygonal knot K embe ..."
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Cited by 35 (11 self)
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There is a positive constant c1 such that for any diagram D representing the unknot, there is a sequence of at most 2 c1n Reidemeister moves that will convert it to a trivial knot diagram, where n is the number of crossings in D. A similar result holds for elementary moves on a polygonal knot K embedded in the 1skeleton of the interior of a compact, orientable, triangulated PL 3manifold M. There is a positive constant c2 such that for each t ≥ 1, if M consists of t tetrahedra, and K is unknotted, then there is a sequence of at most 2 c2t elementary moves in M which transforms K to a triangle contained inside one tetrahedron of M. We obtain explicit values for c1 and c2.
Algorithmic detection and description of hyperbolic structures on closed 3manifolds with solvable word problem. Geometry and Topology. Vol 6
, 2002
"... We outline a rigorous algorithm, first suggested by Casson, for determining whether a closed orientable threemanifold M is hyperbolic, and to compute the hyperbolic structure, if one exists. The algorithm requires that a procedure has been given to solve the word problem in π1M. ..."
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Cited by 11 (0 self)
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We outline a rigorous algorithm, first suggested by Casson, for determining whether a closed orientable threemanifold M is hyperbolic, and to compute the hyperbolic structure, if one exists. The algorithm requires that a procedure has been given to solve the word problem in π1M.
A random tunnel number one 3manifold does not fiber over the circle
 Geom. Topol
"... We address the question: how common is it for a 3–manifold to fiber over the circle? One motivation for considering this is to give insight into the fairly inscrutable Virtual Fibration Conjecture. For the special class of 3–manifolds with tunnel number one, we provide compelling theoretical and exp ..."
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Cited by 10 (2 self)
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We address the question: how common is it for a 3–manifold to fiber over the circle? One motivation for considering this is to give insight into the fairly inscrutable Virtual Fibration Conjecture. For the special class of 3–manifolds with tunnel number one, we provide compelling theoretical and experimental evidence that fibering is a very rare property. Indeed, in various precise senses it happens with probability 0. Our main theorem is that this is true for a measured lamination model of random tunnel number one 3–manifolds. The first ingredient is an algorithm of K Brown which can decide if a given tunnel number one 3–manifold fibers over the circle. Following the lead of Agol, Hass and W Thurston, we implement Brown’s algorithm very efficiently by working in the context of train tracks/interval exchanges. To analyze the resulting algorithm, we generalize work of Kerckhoff to understand the dynamics of splitting sequences of complete genus 2 interval exchanges. Combining all of this with a “magic splitting sequence ” and work of Mirzakhani proves the main theorem. The 3–manifold situation contrasts markedly with random 2–generator 1–relator groups; in particular, we show that such groups “fiber ” with probability strictly
Normal Surface Qtheory
, 1998
"... We describe an approach to normal surface theory for triangulated 3manifolds which uses only the quadrilateral disk types (Qdisks) to represent a nontrivial normal surface. Just as with regular normal surface theory, interesting surfaces are among those associated with the vertices of the projecti ..."
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Cited by 10 (0 self)
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We describe an approach to normal surface theory for triangulated 3manifolds which uses only the quadrilateral disk types (Qdisks) to represent a nontrivial normal surface. Just as with regular normal surface theory, interesting surfaces are among those associated with the vertices of the projective solution space of this new Qtheory.
Almost Normal Heegaard Splittings
, 2001
"... The study of threemanifolds via their Heegaard splittings was initiated by Poul Heegaard in 1898 in his thesis. Our approach to the subject is through almost normal surfaces, as introduced by Hyam Rubinstein [28] and distance, as introduced by John Hempel [12]. Among the results presented... ..."
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Cited by 9 (4 self)
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The study of threemanifolds via their Heegaard splittings was initiated by Poul Heegaard in 1898 in his thesis. Our approach to the subject is through almost normal surfaces, as introduced by Hyam Rubinstein [28] and distance, as introduced by John Hempel [12]. Among the results presented...
The disjoint curve property
, 2004
"... A Heegaard splitting of a closed, orientable threemanifold satisfies the disjoint curve property if the splitting surface contains an essential simple closed curve and each handlebody contains an essential disk disjoint from this curve [Thompson, 1999]. A splitting is full if it does not have the d ..."
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Cited by 8 (0 self)
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A Heegaard splitting of a closed, orientable threemanifold satisfies the disjoint curve property if the splitting surface contains an essential simple closed curve and each handlebody contains an essential disk disjoint from this curve [Thompson, 1999]. A splitting is full if it does not have the disjoint curve property. This paper shows that in a closed, orientable threemanifold all splittings of sufficiently large genus have the disjoint curve property. From this and a solution to the generalized Waldhausen conjecture it would follow that any closed, orientable three manifold contains only finitely many full splittings.