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48
An optimal online algorithm for metrical task systems
 Journal of the ACM
, 1992
"... Abstract. In practice, almost all dynamic systems require decisions to be made online, without full knowledge of their future impact on the system. A general model for the processing of sequences of tasks is introduced, and a general online decnion algorithm is developed. It is shown that, for an ..."
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Cited by 213 (8 self)
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Abstract. In practice, almost all dynamic systems require decisions to be made online, without full knowledge of their future impact on the system. A general model for the processing of sequences of tasks is introduced, and a general online decnion algorithm is developed. It is shown that, for an important algorithms. class of special cases, this algorithm is optimal among all online Specifically, a task system (S. d) for processing sequences of tasks consists of a set S of states and a cost matrix d where d(i, j) is the cost of changing from state i to state j (we assume that d satisfies the triangle inequality and all diagonal entries are f)). The cost of processing a given task depends on the state of the system. A schedule for a sequence T1, T2,..., Tk of tasks is a ‘equence sl,s~,..., Sk of states where s ~ is the state in which T ’ is processed; the cost of a schedule is the sum of all task processing costs and state transition costs incurred. An online scheduling algorithm is one that chooses s, only knowing T1 Tz ~.. T’. Such an algorithm is wcompetitive if, on any input task sequence, its cost is within an additive constant of w times the optimal offline schedule cost. The competitive ratio w(S, d) is the infimum w for which there is a wcompetitive online scheduling algorithm for (S, d). It is shown that w(S, d) = 2 ISI – 1 for eoery task system in which d is symmetric, and w(S, d) = 0(1 S]2) for every task system. Finally, randomized online scheduling algorithms are introduced. It is shown that for the uniform task system (in which d(i, j) = 1 for all i, j), the expected competitive ratio w(S, d) =
Randomized Competitive Algorithms for the List Update Problem
 Algorithmica
, 1992
"... We prove upper and lower bounds on the competitiveness of randomized algorithms for the list update problem of Sleator and Tarjan. We give a simple and elegant randomized algorithm that is more competitive than the best previous randomized algorithm due to Irani. Our algorithm uses randomness only d ..."
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Cited by 47 (2 self)
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We prove upper and lower bounds on the competitiveness of randomized algorithms for the list update problem of Sleator and Tarjan. We give a simple and elegant randomized algorithm that is more competitive than the best previous randomized algorithm due to Irani. Our algorithm uses randomness only during an initialization phase, and from then on runs completely deterministically. It is the first randomized competitive algorithm with this property to beat the deterministic lower bound. We generalize our approach to a model in which access costs are fixed but update costs are scaled by an arbitrary constant d. We prove lower bounds for deterministic list update algorithms and for randomized algorithms against oblivious and adaptive online adversaries. In particular, we show that for this problem adaptive online and adaptive offline adversaries are equally powerful. 1 Introduction Recently much attention has been given to competitive analysis of online algorithms [7, 20, 22, 25]. Ro...
Improved Randomized OnLine Algorithms for the List Update Problem
 PROC. 6TH ANNUAL ACMSIAM SYMPOSIUM ON DISCRETE ALGORITHMS
, 1995
"... The best randomized online algorithms known so far for the list update problem achieve a competitiveness of p 3 1:73. In this paper we present a new family of randomized online algorithms that beat this competitive ratio. Our improved algorithms are called TIMESTAMP algorithms and achieve a com ..."
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Cited by 46 (8 self)
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The best randomized online algorithms known so far for the list update problem achieve a competitiveness of p 3 1:73. In this paper we present a new family of randomized online algorithms that beat this competitive ratio. Our improved algorithms are called TIMESTAMP algorithms and achieve a competitiveness of maxf2 \Gamma p; 1 + p(2 \Gamma p)g, for any real number p 2 [0; 1]. Setting p = (3 \Gamma p 5)=2, we obtain a OEcompetitive algorithm, where OE = (1 + p 5)=2 1:62 is the Golden Ratio. TIMESTAMP algorithms coordinate the movements of items using some information on past requests. We can reduce the required information at the expense of increasing the competitive ratio. We present a very simple version of the TIMESTAMP algorithms that is 1:68competitive. The family of TIMESTAMP algorithms also includes a new deterministic 2competitive online algorithm that is different from the MOVETOFRONT rule.
Asymptotic approximation of the movetofront search cost distribution and leastrecentlyused caching fault probabilities
, 1999
"... Consider a finite list of items n = 1 � 2 � � � � � N, that are requested according to an i.i.d. process. Each time an item is requested it is moved to the front of the list. The associated search cost C N for accessing an item is equal to its position before being moved. If the request distribu ..."
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Cited by 42 (8 self)
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Consider a finite list of items n = 1 � 2 � � � � � N, that are requested according to an i.i.d. process. Each time an item is requested it is moved to the front of the list. The associated search cost C N for accessing an item is equal to its position before being moved. If the request distribution converges to a proper distribution as N → ∞, then the stationary search cost C N converges in distribution to a limiting search cost C. We show that, when the (limiting) request distribution has a heavy tail (e.g., generalized Zipf’s law), P�R = n � ∼ c/n α as n → ∞, α> 1, then the limiting stationary search cost distribution P�C> n�, or, equivalently, the leastrecently used (LRU) caching fault probability, satisfies P�C> n� lim n→ ∞ P�R> n � =
SelfOrganizing Linear Search
 ACM Computing Surveys
, 1985
"... this article. Two examples of simple permutation algorithms are movetofront, which moves the accessed record to the front of the list, shifting all records previously ahead of it back one position; and transpose, which merely exchanges the accessed record with the one immediately ahead of it in th ..."
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Cited by 34 (6 self)
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this article. Two examples of simple permutation algorithms are movetofront, which moves the accessed record to the front of the list, shifting all records previously ahead of it back one position; and transpose, which merely exchanges the accessed record with the one immediately ahead of it in the list. These will be described in more detail later. Knuth [1973] describes several search methods that are usually more efficient than linear search. Bentley and McGeoch [1985] justify the use of selforganizing linear search in the following three contexts:
Selfimproving algorithms
 in SODA ’06: Proceedings of the seventeenth annual ACMSIAM symposium on Discrete algorithm
"... We investigate ways in which an algorithm can improve its expected performance by finetuning itself automatically with respect to an arbitrary, unknown input distribution. We give such selfimproving algorithms for sorting and computing Delaunay triangulations. The highlights of this work: (i) an al ..."
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Cited by 34 (6 self)
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We investigate ways in which an algorithm can improve its expected performance by finetuning itself automatically with respect to an arbitrary, unknown input distribution. We give such selfimproving algorithms for sorting and computing Delaunay triangulations. The highlights of this work: (i) an algorithm to sort a list of numbers with optimal expected limiting complexity; and (ii) an algorithm to compute the Delaunay triangulation of a set of points with optimal expected limiting complexity. In both cases, the algorithm begins with a training phase during which it adjusts itself to the input distribution, followed by a stationary regime in which the algorithm settles to its optimized incarnation. 1
A Combined BIT and TIMESTAMP Algorithm for the List Update Problem
 INFORMATION PROCESSING LETTERS
, 1995
"... We present a randomized online algorithm for the list update problem which achieves a competitive factor of 1.6, the best known so far. The algorithm makes an initial random choice between two known algorithms that have different worstcase request sequences. The first is the BIT algorithm that ..."
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Cited by 33 (12 self)
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We present a randomized online algorithm for the list update problem which achieves a competitive factor of 1.6, the best known so far. The algorithm makes an initial random choice between two known algorithms that have different worstcase request sequences. The first is the BIT algorithm that, for each item in the list, alternates between moving it to the front of the list and leaving it at its place after it has been requested. The second is a TIMESTAMP algorithm that moves an item in front of less often requested items within the list.
Power Laws in Software
"... A single statistical framework, comprising power law distributions and scalefree networks, seems to fit a wide variety of phenomena. There is evidence that power laws appear in software at the class and function level. We show that distributions with long, fat tails in software are much more pervas ..."
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Cited by 23 (2 self)
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A single statistical framework, comprising power law distributions and scalefree networks, seems to fit a wide variety of phenomena. There is evidence that power laws appear in software at the class and function level. We show that distributions with long, fat tails in software are much more pervasive than previously established, appearing at various levels of abstraction, in diverse systems and languages. The implications of this phenomenon cover various aspects of software engineering research and practice.
Average Case Analyses of List Update Algorithms, with Applications to Data Compression
 Algorithmica
, 1998
"... We study the performance of the Timestamp (0) (TS(0)) algorithm for selforganizing sequential search on discrete memoryless sources. We demonstrate that TS(0) is better than Movetofront on such sources, and determine performance ratios for TS(0) against the optimal offline and static adversaries ..."
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Cited by 22 (4 self)
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We study the performance of the Timestamp (0) (TS(0)) algorithm for selforganizing sequential search on discrete memoryless sources. We demonstrate that TS(0) is better than Movetofront on such sources, and determine performance ratios for TS(0) against the optimal offline and static adversaries in this situation. Previous work on such sources compared online algorithms only with static adversaries. One practical motivation for our work is the use of the Movetofront heuristic in various compression algorithms. Our theoretical results suggest that in many cases using TS(0) in place of Movetofront in schemes that use the latter should improve compression. Tests using implementations on a standard corpus of test documents demonstrate that TS(0) leads to improved compression.
SelfOrganizing Data Structures
 In
, 1998
"... . We survey results on selforganizing data structures for the search problem and concentrate on two very popular structures: the unsorted linear list, and the binary search tree. For the problem of maintaining unsorted lists, also known as the list update problem, we present results on the competit ..."
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Cited by 22 (0 self)
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. We survey results on selforganizing data structures for the search problem and concentrate on two very popular structures: the unsorted linear list, and the binary search tree. For the problem of maintaining unsorted lists, also known as the list update problem, we present results on the competitiveness achieved by deterministic and randomized online algorithms. For binary search trees, we present results for both online and offline algorithms. Selforganizing data structures can be used to build very effective data compression schemes. We summarize theoretical and experimental results. 1 Introduction This paper surveys results in the design and analysis of selforganizing data structures for the search problem. The general search problem in pointer data structures can be phrased as follows. The elements of a set are stored in a collection of nodes. Each node also contains O(1) pointers to other nodes and additional state data which can be used for navigation and selforganizati...