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48
On the Combinatorial and Algebraic Complexity of Quantifier Elimination
, 1996
"... In this paper, a new algorithm for performing quantifier elimination from first order formulas over real closed fields is given. This algorithm improves the complexity of the asymptotically fastest algorithm for this problem, known to this date. A new feature of this algorithm is that the role of th ..."
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Cited by 231 (29 self)
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In this paper, a new algorithm for performing quantifier elimination from first order formulas over real closed fields is given. This algorithm improves the complexity of the asymptotically fastest algorithm for this problem, known to this date. A new feature of this algorithm is that the role of the algebraic part (the dependence on the degrees of the input polynomials) and the combinatorial part (the dependence on the number of polynomials) are separated. Another new feature is that the degrees of the polynomials in the equivalent quantifierfree formula that is output, are independent of the number of input polynomials. As special cases of this algorithm, new and improved algorithms for deciding a sentence in the first order theory over real closed fields, and also for solving the existential problem in the first order theory over real closed fields, are obtained.
A Gröbner free alternative for polynomial system solving
 Journal of Complexity
, 2001
"... Given a system of polynomial equations and inequations with coefficients in the field of rational numbers, we show how to compute a geometric resolution of the set of common roots of the system over the field of complex numbers. A geometric resolution consists of a primitive element of the algebraic ..."
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Cited by 107 (19 self)
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Given a system of polynomial equations and inequations with coefficients in the field of rational numbers, we show how to compute a geometric resolution of the set of common roots of the system over the field of complex numbers. A geometric resolution consists of a primitive element of the algebraic extension defined by the set of roots, its minimal polynomial and the parametrizations of the coordinates. Such a representation of the solutions has a long history which goes back to Leopold Kronecker and has been revisited many times in computer algebra. We introduce a new generation of probabilistic algorithms where all the computations use only univariate or bivariate polynomials. We give a new codification of the set of solutions of a positive dimensional algebraic variety relying on a new global version of Newton’s iterator. Roughly speaking the complexity of our algorithm is polynomial in some kind of degree of the system, in its height, and linear in the complexity of evaluation
Homogeneous multivariate polynomials with the halfplane property
 ADV. IN APPL. MATH
, 2002
"... A polynomial P in n complex variables is said to have the “halfplane property” (or Hurwitz property) if it is nonvanishing whenever all the variables lie in the open right halfplane. Such polynomials arise in combinatorics, reliability theory, electrical circuit theory and statistical mechanics. A ..."
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Cited by 58 (5 self)
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A polynomial P in n complex variables is said to have the “halfplane property” (or Hurwitz property) if it is nonvanishing whenever all the variables lie in the open right halfplane. Such polynomials arise in combinatorics, reliability theory, electrical circuit theory and statistical mechanics. A particularly important case is when the polynomial is homogeneous and multiaffine: then it is the (weighted) generating polynomial of an runiform set system. We prove that the support (set of nonzero coefficients) of a homogeneous multiaffine polynomial with the halfplane property is necessarily the set of bases of a matroid. Conversely, we ask: For which matroids M does the basis generating polynomial P B(M) have the halfplane property? Not all matroids have the halfplane property, but we find large classes that do: all sixthrootofunity matroids, and a subclass of transversal (or cotransversal) matroids that we call “nice”. Furthermore, the class of matroids with the halfplane property is closed under minors, duality, direct sums, 2sums, series and parallel connection, fullrank matroid union, and some special cases of principal truncation, principal extension, principal cotruncation and principal coextension. Our positive results depend on two distinct (and apparently unrelated) methods for constructing polynomials with the halfplane property: a determinant construction (exploiting “energy” arguments), and a permanent construction (exploiting the Heilmann–Lieb theorem on matching polynomials). We conclude with a list of open questions.
New Results on Quantifier Elimination Over Real Closed Fields and Applications to Constraint Databases
 Journal of the ACM
, 1999
"... In this paper we give a new algorithm for quantifier elimination in the first order theory of real closed fields that improves the complexity of the best known algorithm for this problem till now. Unlike previously known algorithms [3, 28, 22] the combinatorial part of the complexity (the part depen ..."
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Cited by 44 (5 self)
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In this paper we give a new algorithm for quantifier elimination in the first order theory of real closed fields that improves the complexity of the best known algorithm for this problem till now. Unlike previously known algorithms [3, 28, 22] the combinatorial part of the complexity (the part depending on the number of polynomials in the input) of this new algorithm is independent of the number of free variables. Moreover, under the assumption that each polynomial in the input depend only on a constant number of the free variables, the algebraic part of the complexity (the part depending on the degrees of the input polynomials) can also be made independent of the number of free variables. This new feature of our algorithm allows us to obtain a new algorithm for a variant of the quantifier elimination problem. We give an almost optimal algorithm for this new problem, which we call the uniform quantifier elimination problem. Using the uniform quantifier elimination algorithm, we give a...
A New Algorithm to Find a Point in Every Cell Defined by a Family of Polynomials
 B. Caviness and J. Johnson Eds., SpringerVerlag
, 1995
"... We consider s polynomials P 1 ; : : : ; P s in k ! s variables with coefficients in an ordered domain A contained in a real closed field R, each of degree at most d. We present a new algorithm which computes a point in each connected component of each nonempty sign condition over P 1 ; : : : ; P s ..."
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Cited by 43 (8 self)
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We consider s polynomials P 1 ; : : : ; P s in k ! s variables with coefficients in an ordered domain A contained in a real closed field R, each of degree at most d. We present a new algorithm which computes a point in each connected component of each nonempty sign condition over P 1 ; : : : ; P s . The output is the set of points together with the sign condition at each point. The algorithm uses s(s=k) k d O(k) arithmetic operations in A. The algorithm is nearly optimal in the sense that the size of the output can be as large as s(O(sd=k)) k . Previous algorithms of Canny and Renegar used (sd) O(k) operations [5, 7, 8, 15]. We use either these algorithms in the case s = 1 as a subroutine in our algorithm. As a bonus, our algorithm yields an independent proof of the bound on the number of connected components in all nonempty sign conditions ([14]) and also yields an independent proof of a theorem of Warren 1 Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, N...
Polar varieties and efficient real elimination
 MATH. Z
, 2001
"... Let S0 be a smooth and compact real variety given by a reduced regular sequence of polynomials f1,..., fp. This paper is devoted to the algorithmic problem of finding efficiently a representative point for each connected component of S0. For this purpose we exhibit explicit polynomial equations th ..."
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Cited by 39 (16 self)
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Let S0 be a smooth and compact real variety given by a reduced regular sequence of polynomials f1,..., fp. This paper is devoted to the algorithmic problem of finding efficiently a representative point for each connected component of S0. For this purpose we exhibit explicit polynomial equations that describe the generic polar varieties of S0. This leads to a procedure which solves our algorithmic problem in time that is polynomial in the (extrinsic) description length of the input equations f1,..., fp and in a suitably introduced, intrinsic geometric parameter, called the degree of the real interpretation of the given equation system f1,..., fp.
Generalized polar varieties: Geometry and algorithms
, 2004
"... Let V be a closed algebraic subvariety of the n–dimensional projective space over the complex or real numbers and suppose that V is non–empty and equidimensional. The classic notion of a polar variety of V associated with a given linear subvariety of the ambient space of V was generalized and motiva ..."
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Cited by 35 (12 self)
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Let V be a closed algebraic subvariety of the n–dimensional projective space over the complex or real numbers and suppose that V is non–empty and equidimensional. The classic notion of a polar variety of V associated with a given linear subvariety of the ambient space of V was generalized and motivated in [2]. As particular instances of this notion of a generalized polar variety one reobtains the classic one and an alternative type of a polar varietiy, called dual. As main result of the present paper we show that for a generic choice of their parameters the generalized polar varieties of V are empty or equidimensional and smooth in any regular point of V. In the case that the variety V is affine and smooth and has a complete intersection ideal of definition, we are able, for a generic parameter choice, to describe locally the generalized polar varieties of V by explicit equations. Finally, we indicate how this description may be used in order to design in
BETTI NUMBERS OF SEMIALGEBRAIC AND SUBPFAFFIAN SETS
"... Let X be a subset in [−1,1] n0 ⊂ Rn0 defined by a formula X = {x0  Q1x1Q2x2...Qνxν((x0,x1,...,xν) ∈ Xν)}, where Qi ∈ {∃, ∀}, Qi � = Qi+1, xi ∈ Rni,and Xν be either an open or a closed set in [−1,1] n0+...+nν being a difference between a finite CWcomplex and its subcomplex. We express an upper bou ..."
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Cited by 30 (9 self)
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Let X be a subset in [−1,1] n0 ⊂ Rn0 defined by a formula X = {x0  Q1x1Q2x2...Qνxν((x0,x1,...,xν) ∈ Xν)}, where Qi ∈ {∃, ∀}, Qi � = Qi+1, xi ∈ Rni,and Xν be either an open or a closed set in [−1,1] n0+...+nν being a difference between a finite CWcomplex and its subcomplex. We express an upper bound on each Betti number of X via a sum of Betti numbers of some sets defined by quantifierfree formulae involving Xν. In important particular cases of semialgebraic and semiPfaffian sets defined by quantifierfree formulae with polynomials and Pfaffian functions respectively, upper bounds on Betti numbers of Xν are well known. Our results allow to extend the bounds to sets defined with quantifiers, in particular to subPfaffian sets.
Polar Varieties and Efficient Real Equation Solving: The Hypersurface Case
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 3RD CONFERENCE APPROXIMATION AND OPTIMIZATION IN THE CARIBBEAN, IN: APORTACIONES MATEMÁTICAS, MEXICAN SOCIETY OF MATHEMATICS
, 1998
"... The objective of this paper is to show how the recently proposed method by Giusti, Heintz, Morais, Morgenstern, Pardo [10] can be applied to a case of real polynomial equation solving. Our main result concerns the problem of finding one representative point for each connected component of a real bou ..."
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Cited by 30 (5 self)
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The objective of this paper is to show how the recently proposed method by Giusti, Heintz, Morais, Morgenstern, Pardo [10] can be applied to a case of real polynomial equation solving. Our main result concerns the problem of finding one representative point for each connected component of a real bounded smooth hypersurface. The algorithm in [10] yields a method for symbolically solving a zerodimensional polynomial equation system in the affine (and toric) case. Its main feature is the use of adapted data structure: Arithmetical networks and straightline programs. The algorithm solves any affine zerodimensional equation system in nonuniform sequential time that is polynomial in the length of the input description and an adequately defined affine degree of the equation system. Replacing the affine degree of the equation system by a suitably defined real degree of certain polar varieties associated to the input equation, which describes the hypersurface under consideration, and using straightline program codification of the input and intermediate results, we obtain a method for the problem introduced above that is polynomial in the input length and the real degree.
Polar varieties, real equation solving and data structures: The hypersurface case
 J. COMPLEXITY
, 1997
"... In this paper we apply for the rst time a new method for multivariate equation solving which was developed in [18], [19], [20] for complex root determination to the real case. Our main result concerns the problem of nding at least one representative point foreachconnected component of a real compac ..."
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Cited by 29 (15 self)
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In this paper we apply for the rst time a new method for multivariate equation solving which was developed in [18], [19], [20] for complex root determination to the real case. Our main result concerns the problem of nding at least one representative point foreachconnected component of a real compact and smooth hypersurface. The basic algorithm of [18], [19], [20] yields a new method for symbolically solving zerodimensional polynomial equation systems over the complex numbers. feature of central importance of this algorithm is the use of a problem{adapted data type represented by the data structures arithmetic network and straightline program (arithmetic circuit). The algorithm nds the complex solutions of any a ne zerodimensional equation system in nonuniform sequential time that is polynomial in the length of the input (given in straight{line program representation) and an adequately de ned geometric degree of the equation system. Replacing the notion of geometric degree of the given polynomial equation system by a suitably de ned real (or complex) degree of certain polar varieties associated to