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Routing with Guaranteed Delivery in ad hoc Wireless Networks
 WIRELESS NETWORKS
, 2001
"... We consider routing problems in ad hoc wireless networks modeled as unit graphs in which nodes are points in the plane and two nodes can communicate if the distance between them is less than some fixed unit. We describe the first distributed algorithms for routing that do not require duplication of ..."
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Cited by 707 (77 self)
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We consider routing problems in ad hoc wireless networks modeled as unit graphs in which nodes are points in the plane and two nodes can communicate if the distance between them is less than some fixed unit. We describe the first distributed algorithms for routing that do not require duplication of packets or memory at the nodes and yet guarantee that a packet is delivered to its destination. These algorithms can be extended to yield algorithms for broadcasting and geocasting that do not require packet duplication. A byproduct of our results is a simple distributed protocol for extracting a planar subgraph of a unit graph. We also present simulation results on the performance of our algorithms.
Compass Routing on Geometric Networks
 IN PROC. 11 TH CANADIAN CONFERENCE ON COMPUTATIONAL GEOMETRY
, 1999
"... In this paper we study local routing algorithms on geometric networks. Formally speaking, suppose that we want to travel from a vertex s to a vertex t of a geometric network. A routing algorithm is called a local routing algorithm if it satisfies the following conditions: ..."
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Cited by 285 (15 self)
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In this paper we study local routing algorithms on geometric networks. Formally speaking, suppose that we want to travel from a vertex s to a vertex t of a geometric network. A routing algorithm is called a local routing algorithm if it satisfies the following conditions:
Loopfree hybrid singlepath/flooding routing algorithms with guaranteed delivery for wireless networks
 IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
"... AbstractÐIn a localized routing algorithm, each node makes forwarding decisions solely based on the position of itself, its neighbors, and its destination. In distance, progress, and directionbased approaches (reported in the literature), when node A wants to send or forward message m to destinatio ..."
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Cited by 120 (16 self)
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AbstractÐIn a localized routing algorithm, each node makes forwarding decisions solely based on the position of itself, its neighbors, and its destination. In distance, progress, and directionbased approaches (reported in the literature), when node A wants to send or forward message m to destination node D, it forwards m to its neighbor C which is closest to D (has best progress toward D, whose direction is closest to the direction of D, respectively) among all neighbors of A. The same procedure is repeated until D, if possible, is eventually reached. The algorithms are referred to as GEDIR, MFR, and DIR when a common failure criterion is introduced: The algorithm stops if the best choice for the current node is the node from which the message came. We propose 2hop GEDIR, DIR, and MFR methods in which node A selects the best candidate node C among its 1hop and 2hop neighbors according to the corresponding criterion and forwards m to its best 1hop neighbor among joint neighbors of A and C. We then propose flooding GEDIR and MFR and hybrid singlepath/flooding GEDIR and MFR methods which are the first localized algorithms (other than full flooding) to guarantee the message delivery (in a collisionfree environment). We show that the directional routing methods are not loopfree, while the GEDIR and MFRbased methods are inherently loop free. The simulation experiments, with static random graphs, show that GEDIR and MFR have similar success rates, which is low for low degree graphs and high for high degree ones. When successful, their hop counts are near the performance of the shortest path algorithm. Hybrid singlepath/flooding GEDIR and MFR methods have low communication overheads. The results are also confirmed by experiments with moving nodes and MAC layer. Index TermsÐRouting, wireless networks, distributed algorithms, shortest path, broadcasting. æ 1
Online Routing in Triangulations
 IN PROC. OF THE 10 TH ANNUAL INT. SYMP. ON ALGORITHMS AND COMPUTATION ISAAC
, 1999
"... We consider online routing strategies for routing between the vertices of embedded planar straight line graphs. Our results include (1) two deterministic memoryless routing strategies, one that works for all Delaunay triangulations and the other that works for all regular triangulations, (2) a ..."
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Cited by 116 (11 self)
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We consider online routing strategies for routing between the vertices of embedded planar straight line graphs. Our results include (1) two deterministic memoryless routing strategies, one that works for all Delaunay triangulations and the other that works for all regular triangulations, (2) a randomized memoryless strategy that works for all triangulations, (3) an O(1) memory strategy that works for all convex subdivisions, (4) an O(1) memory strategy that approximates the shortest path in Delaunay triangulations, and (5) theoretical and experimental results on the competitiveness of these strategies.
Position Based Routing Algorithms For Ad Hoc Networks: A Taxonomy
 Ad Hoc Wireless Networking
, 2001
"... Recent availability of small inexpensive low power GPS receivers and techniques for finding relative coordinates based on signal strengths, and the need for the design of power efficient and scalable networks, provided justification for applying position based routing methods in ad hoc networks. A n ..."
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Cited by 83 (4 self)
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Recent availability of small inexpensive low power GPS receivers and techniques for finding relative coordinates based on signal strengths, and the need for the design of power efficient and scalable networks, provided justification for applying position based routing methods in ad hoc networks. A number of such algorithms were developed in last few years, in addition to few basic methods proposed about fifteen years ago. This article surveys known routing methods, and provides their taxonomy in terms of a number of characteristics: loopfree behavior, distributed operation (localized, global or zonal), path strategy (single path, multipath or flooding based), metrics used (hop count, power or cost), memorization (memoryless or memorizing past traffic), guaranteed delivery, scalability, and robustness (strategies to handle the position deviation due to the dynamicity of the network). We also briefly discuss relevant issues such as physical requirements, experimental design, location updates, QoS, congestion, scheduling node activity, topology construction, broadcasting and network capacity.
Clustering and Routing in Mobile Wireless Networks
, 1999
"... In this paper we propose several new clustering algorithms for nodes in a mobile ad hoc network. We propose to combine two known approaches into a single clustering algorithm which considers connectivity as a primary and lower ID as secondary criteria for selecting clusterheads. Several inherently c ..."
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Cited by 18 (0 self)
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In this paper we propose several new clustering algorithms for nodes in a mobile ad hoc network. We propose to combine two known approaches into a single clustering algorithm which considers connectivity as a primary and lower ID as secondary criteria for selecting clusterheads. Several inherently collisionfree clustering algorithms are then designed based on a depth first search (DFS) traversal of nodes in the network. These algorithms are initialized by any node and are fully distributed. They create and maintain kclusters, in which any node is at distance at most k hops from the clusterhead. In the clustering process, each node is either a clusterhead, a covered or undecided node. In the basic kcluster algorithm, each undecided visited node in DFS declares itself a clusterhead and covers all its khop neighbors. In the highest connectivity kcluster algorithms, each undecided visited node checks all its undecided khop neighbors and chooses one with the largest connectivity to be...
LocationBased Localized Alternate, Disjoint and MultiPath Routing Algorithms for Wireless Networks
, 2003
"... Recently, several fully distributed (localized) locationbased routing protocols for a mobile ad hoc network were reported in literature. They are variations of directional (DIR), geographic distance (GEDIR) or progressbased (MFR) routing methods. In DIR methods each node A (the source or intermedi ..."
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Cited by 14 (1 self)
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Recently, several fully distributed (localized) locationbased routing protocols for a mobile ad hoc network were reported in literature. They are variations of directional (DIR), geographic distance (GEDIR) or progressbased (MFR) routing methods. In DIR methods each node A (the source or intermediate node) transmits a message m to several neighbors whose direction is closest to the direction of D. In MFR (most forward progress within radius), and GEDIR (GEographic DIstance Routing) methods, when node A wants to send m to node D, it forwards m neighbor C whose protection or distance (respectively) is closest to D among all neighbors of A. The same procedure is repeated until D, if possible, is eventually reached. In this paper, we introduce three variants of multiple path cGEDIR, cDIR and cMFR methods in which mis initially sent to c best neighbors according to corresqj7fixE criterion, andafterwards on intermediatenodes itis forwarded to only the bes neighbor. In the original cpath method, only thefirs received copy at intermediatenodes is forwarded to the bes neighbor. In the alternate cpath method, the ith received copyis forwarded to ithbes neighbor, according to these jEUEx criterion. In the disjoint cpath method, each intermediate node, upon receiving themesGfiU/ will forward it toits bes neighbor among thos who never received themesxflE (thus in effect, the methods attempts c disoint pathsT The sjExQExj7 experiments with random graphs sap that disjoint multiple path methods provide high sghjGE rates and sdjG hopcounts forsrjE values of c: They als have reduced flooding rates compared to the bes exis/qT multiplepathmethods and/or methods that require memorizing pas traffic,saf as recently proposy LAR2, fGEDIR, and DFSbasG routing, and can snjE as abasq for scalable QoS routing in wireless networks.
A comprehensive overview about selected ad hoc networking routing protocols
 Master’s thesis, Technische Universit at Munchen
, 2003
"... ..."
Optimal Flooding Protocol for Routing in Adhoc Networks
 in IEEE Wireless Communication and Networking Conference
, 2002
"... Location discovery is a fundamental problem in wireless ad hoc networks. Most of the ad hoc routing protocols use some form of flooding to discover the location and route of a mobile node. Despite various optimizations, many messages are propagated unnecessarily. We propose the Optimal Flooding Prot ..."
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Cited by 10 (0 self)
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Location discovery is a fundamental problem in wireless ad hoc networks. Most of the ad hoc routing protocols use some form of flooding to discover the location and route of a mobile node. Despite various optimizations, many messages are propagated unnecessarily. We propose the Optimal Flooding Protocol (OFP), based on a variation of The Covering Problem that is encountered in geometry, to minimize the unnecessary transmissions drastically and still be able to cover the whole region. OFP outperforms other existing variations of flooding. This simple protocol uses up to 65 % to 80% fewer messages than flooding and 50% fewer messages than gossipbased flooding, which has been proposed as one of the best optimized variation of flooding. OFP is scalable with respect to number of nodes; in fact OFP's performance improves with the number of nodes.
Direction forward routing for highly mobile ad hoc networks
 In Ad Hoc and Sensor Wireless Networks; Old City Publishing
, 2006
"... Popular ad hoc routing protocols such as DSDV and AODV use “predecessor ” based forwarding, namely, the packet is forwarded to the predecessor that advertised the shortest path to destination during the last update. However, if the predecessor moves, the routing table entry becomes invalid and prede ..."
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Cited by 2 (1 self)
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Popular ad hoc routing protocols such as DSDV and AODV use “predecessor ” based forwarding, namely, the packet is forwarded to the predecessor that advertised the shortest path to destination during the last update. However, if the predecessor moves, the routing table entry becomes invalid and predecessor based forwarding fails! To overcome the stale forward table problem, in this paper we propose a novel packet forwarding scheme called “direction ” forwarding (DFR). When an update is received, a node records the “geographical direction ” to where the update came from. When predecessor forwarding fails, the packet is forwarded to the “most promising” neighbor in the recorded direction. If the network is sufficiently dense and the routing algorithm includes periodic refresh from destination, direction forwarding will recover from most “predecessor ” failures due to motion. We evaluate DFR in a LANMAR routing scenario where the direction to each Landmark is periodically refreshed. Through simulation we show that DFR considerately enhances LANMAR performance in large, mobile network scenarios.