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29
Learning Bayesian networks: The combination of knowledge and statistical data
 Machine Learning
, 1995
"... We describe scoring metrics for learning Bayesian networks from a combination of user knowledge and statistical data. We identify two important properties of metrics, which we call event equivalence and parameter modularity. These properties have been mostly ignored, but when combined, greatly simpl ..."
Abstract

Cited by 903 (35 self)
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We describe scoring metrics for learning Bayesian networks from a combination of user knowledge and statistical data. We identify two important properties of metrics, which we call event equivalence and parameter modularity. These properties have been mostly ignored, but when combined, greatly simplify the encoding of a user’s prior knowledge. In particular, a user can express his knowledge—for the most part—as a single prior Bayesian network for the domain. 1
A Guide to the Literature on Learning Probabilistic Networks From Data
, 1996
"... This literature review discusses different methods under the general rubric of learning Bayesian networks from data, and includes some overlapping work on more general probabilistic networks. Connections are drawn between the statistical, neural network, and uncertainty communities, and between the ..."
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Cited by 172 (0 self)
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This literature review discusses different methods under the general rubric of learning Bayesian networks from data, and includes some overlapping work on more general probabilistic networks. Connections are drawn between the statistical, neural network, and uncertainty communities, and between the different methodological communities, such as Bayesian, description length, and classical statistics. Basic concepts for learning and Bayesian networks are introduced and methods are then reviewed. Methods are discussed for learning parameters of a probabilistic network, for learning the structure, and for learning hidden variables. The presentation avoids formal definitions and theorems, as these are plentiful in the literature, and instead illustrates key concepts with simplified examples. Keywords Bayesian networks, graphical models, hidden variables, learning, learning structure, probabilistic networks, knowledge discovery. I. Introduction Probabilistic networks or probabilistic gra...
Learning Bayesian Networks is NPHard
, 1994
"... Algorithms for learning Bayesian networks from data have two components: a scoring metric and a search procedure. The scoring metric computes a score reflecting the goodnessoffit of the structure to the data. The search procedure tries to identify network structures with high scores. Heckerman et ..."
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Cited by 131 (2 self)
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Algorithms for learning Bayesian networks from data have two components: a scoring metric and a search procedure. The scoring metric computes a score reflecting the goodnessoffit of the structure to the data. The search procedure tries to identify network structures with high scores. Heckerman et al. (1994) introduced a Bayesian metric, called the BDe metric, that computes the relative posterior probability of a network structure given data. They show that the metric has a property desireable for inferring causal structure from data. In this paper, we show that the problem of deciding whether there is a Bayesian networkamong those where each node has at most k parentsthat has a relative posterior probability greater than a given constant is NPcomplete, when the BDe metric is used. 1 Introduction Recently, many researchers have begun to investigate methods for learning Bayesian networks, including Bayesian methods [Cooper and Herskovits, 1991, Buntine, 1991, York 1992, Spiegel...
Learning Equivalence Classes Of Bayesian Network Structures
, 1996
"... Approaches to learning Bayesian networks from data typically combine a scoring metric with a heuristic search procedure. Given aBayesian network structure, many of the scoring metrics derived in the literature return a score for the entire equivalence class to which the structure belongs. When ..."
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Cited by 129 (1 self)
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Approaches to learning Bayesian networks from data typically combine a scoring metric with a heuristic search procedure. Given aBayesian network structure, many of the scoring metrics derived in the literature return a score for the entire equivalence class to which the structure belongs. When using such a metric, it is appropriate for the heuristic search algorithm to searchover equivalence classes of Bayesian networks as opposed to individual structures. We present the general formulation of a search space for which the states of the search correspond to equivalence classes of structures. Using this space, anyoneofanumber of heuristic searchalgorithms can easily be applied. We compare greedy search performance in the proposed search space to greedy search performance in a search space for which the states correspond to individual Bayesian network structures. 1
Construction of Bayesian Network Structures From Data: A Brief Survey and an Efficient Algorithm
, 1995
"... Previous algorithms for the recovery of Bayesian belief network structures from data have been either highly dependent on conditional independence (CI) tests, or have required on ordering on the nodes to be supplied by the user. We present an algorithm that integrates these two approaches: CI tests ..."
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Cited by 77 (8 self)
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Previous algorithms for the recovery of Bayesian belief network structures from data have been either highly dependent on conditional independence (CI) tests, or have required on ordering on the nodes to be supplied by the user. We present an algorithm that integrates these two approaches: CI tests are used to generate an ordering on the nodes from the database, which is then used to recover the underlying Bayesian network structure using a nonCltestbased method. Results of the evaluation of the algorithm on a number of databases (e.g., ALARM, LED, and SOYBEAN) are presented. We also discuss some algorithm performance issues and open problems.
Learning Bayesian Networks by Genetic Algorithms. A case study in the prediction of survival in malignant skin melanoma
, 1997
"... In this work we introduce a methodology based on Genetic Algorithms for the automatic induction of Bayesian Networks from a file containing cases and variables related to the problem. The methodology is applied to the problem of predicting survival of people after one, three and five years of being ..."
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Cited by 71 (11 self)
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In this work we introduce a methodology based on Genetic Algorithms for the automatic induction of Bayesian Networks from a file containing cases and variables related to the problem. The methodology is applied to the problem of predicting survival of people after one, three and five years of being diagnosed as having malignant skin melanoma. The accuracy of the obtained model, measured in terms of the percentage of wellclassified subjects, is compared to that obtained by the called NaiveBayes. In both cases, the estimation of the model accuracy is obtained from the 10fold crossvalidation method. 1. Introduction Expert systems, one of the most developed areas in the field of Artificial Intelligence, are computer programs designed to help or replace humans beings in tasks in which the human experience and human knowledge are scarce and unreliable. Although, there are domains in which the tasks can be specifed by logic rules, other domains are characterized by an uncertainty inherent...
Learning Bayesian Network Structures by Searching For the Best Ordering With Genetic Algorithms
 IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics
, 1996
"... In this paper we present a ne_(l n [!ii ' with respect to Bayesian networks con ogy for inducing Bayesian network structures frop3 titute the roblem of the evidence propagation and a database of cases. The methodology is based oap&lll searching for the best ordering of the system vari the problem ..."
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Cited by 54 (9 self)
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In this paper we present a ne_(l n [!ii ' with respect to Bayesian networks con ogy for inducing Bayesian network structures frop3 titute the roblem of the evidence propagation and a database of cases. The methodology is based oap&lll searching for the best ordering of the system vari the problem of the model search. The problem of shies by means of genetic algorithl{. Since his th_vidence propagation consists of once the vMproblem of finding an optimal ordea. teeuarue}rables are known, the assignment of resembles the traveling salesman p'FolUleh)ve use .... IW. ....... probablhles to the values of the rest of the van genetic operators that were developed for the latter  problem. The quality of a variable ordering is eval ables. Cooper [4] demonstrated that this problem Mated with the algorithm K2. We present empirical results that were obtained with a simulation of the ALARM network.
Learning Bayesian Belief Networks Based on the Minimum Description Length Principle: Basic Properties
, 1996
"... This paper was partially presented at the 9th conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, July 1993. ..."
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Cited by 51 (0 self)
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This paper was partially presented at the 9th conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, July 1993.
Asymptotic model selection for directed networks with hidden variables
, 1996
"... We extend the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), an asymptotic approximation for the marginal likelihood, to Bayesian networks with hidden variables. This approximation can be used to select models given large samples of data. The standard BIC as well as our extension punishes the complexity of a ..."
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Cited by 46 (13 self)
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We extend the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), an asymptotic approximation for the marginal likelihood, to Bayesian networks with hidden variables. This approximation can be used to select models given large samples of data. The standard BIC as well as our extension punishes the complexity of a model according to the dimension of its parameters. We argue that the dimension of a Bayesian network with hidden variables is the rank of the Jacobian matrix of the transformation between the parameters of the network and the parameters of the observable variables. We compute the dimensions of several networks including the naive Bayes model with a hidden root node. 1
A new approach for learning belief networks using independence criteria
 International Journal of Approximate Reasoning
, 2000
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