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16
Ynot: Dependent types for imperative programs
 In Proceedings of ICFP 2008
, 2008
"... We describe an axiomatic extension to the Coq proof assistant, that supports writing, reasoning about, and extracting higherorder, dependentlytyped programs with sideeffects. Coq already includes a powerful functional language that supports dependent types, but that language is limited to pure, t ..."
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Cited by 36 (10 self)
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We describe an axiomatic extension to the Coq proof assistant, that supports writing, reasoning about, and extracting higherorder, dependentlytyped programs with sideeffects. Coq already includes a powerful functional language that supports dependent types, but that language is limited to pure, total functions. The key contribution of our extension, which we call Ynot, is the added support for computations that may have effects such as nontermination, accessing a mutable store, and throwing/catching exceptions. The axioms of Ynot form a small trusted computing base which has been formally justified in our previous work on Hoare Type Theory (HTT). We show how these axioms can be combined with the powerful type and abstraction mechanisms of Coq to build higherlevel reasoning mechanisms which in turn can be used to build realistic, verified software components. To substantiate this claim, we describe here a representative series of modules that implement imperative finite maps, including support for a higherorder (effectful) iterator. The implementations range from simple (e.g., association lists) to complex (e.g., hash tables) but share a common interface which abstracts the implementation details and ensures that the modules properly implement the finite map abstraction.
Adequacy for algebraic effects
 In 4th FoSSaCS
, 2001
"... We present a logic for algebraic effects, based on the algebraic representation of computational effects by operations and equations. We begin with the acalculus, a minimal calculus which separates values, effects, and computations and thereby canonises the order of evaluation. This is extended to ..."
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Cited by 30 (16 self)
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We present a logic for algebraic effects, based on the algebraic representation of computational effects by operations and equations. We begin with the acalculus, a minimal calculus which separates values, effects, and computations and thereby canonises the order of evaluation. This is extended to obtain the logic, which is a classical firstorder multisorted logic with higherorder value and computation types, as in Levy’s callbypushvalue, a principle of induction over computations, a free algebra principle, and predicate fixed points. This logic embraces Moggi’s computational λcalculus, and also, via definable modalities, HennessyMilner logic, and evaluation logic, though Hoare logic presents difficulties. 1
Ynot: Reasoning with the awkward squad
 In ACM SIGPLAN International Conference on Functional Programming
, 2008
"... We describe an axiomatic extension to the Coq proof assistant, that supports writing, reasoning about, and extracting higherorder, dependentlytyped programs with sideeffects. Coq already includes a powerful functional language that supports dependent types, but that language is limited to pure, t ..."
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Cited by 16 (0 self)
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We describe an axiomatic extension to the Coq proof assistant, that supports writing, reasoning about, and extracting higherorder, dependentlytyped programs with sideeffects. Coq already includes a powerful functional language that supports dependent types, but that language is limited to pure, total functions. The key contribution of our extension, which we call Ynot, is the added support for computations that may have effects such as nontermination, accessing a mutable store, and throwing/catching exceptions. The axioms of Ynot form a small trusted computing base which has been formally justified in our previous work on Hoare Type Theory (HTT). We show how these axioms can be combined with the powerful type and abstraction mechanisms of Coq to build higherlevel reasoning mechanisms which in turn can be used to build realistic, verified software components. To substantiate this claim, we describe here a representative series of modules that implement imperative finite maps, including support for a higherorder (effectful) iterator. The implementations range from simple (e.g., association lists) to complex (e.g., hash tables) but share a common interface which abstracts the implementation details and ensures that the modules properly implement the finite map abstraction.
Reducibility and ⊤⊤lifting for computation types
 In Proc. 7th International Conference on Typed Lambda Calculi and Applications (TLCA), volume 3461 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2005
"... Abstract. We propose ⊤⊤lifting as a technique for extending operational predicates to Moggi’s monadic computation types, independent of the choice of monad. We demonstrate the method with an application to GirardTait reducibility, using this to prove strong normalisation for the computational meta ..."
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Cited by 15 (2 self)
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Abstract. We propose ⊤⊤lifting as a technique for extending operational predicates to Moggi’s monadic computation types, independent of the choice of monad. We demonstrate the method with an application to GirardTait reducibility, using this to prove strong normalisation for the computational metalanguage λml. The particular challenge with reducibility is to apply this semantic notion at computation types when the exact meaning of “computation ” (stateful, sideeffecting, nondeterministic, etc.) is left unspecified. Our solution is to define reducibility for continuations and use that to support the jump from value types to computation types. The method appears robust: we apply it to show strong normalisation for the computational metalanguage extended with sums, and with exceptions. Based on these results, as well as previous work with local state, we suggest that this “leapfrog ” approach offers a general method for raising concepts defined at value types up to observable properties of computations. 1
Semantics of an effect analysis for exceptions
 In 3rd ACMSIGPLAN Workshop on Types in Language Design and Implementation (TLDI
, 2007
"... We give a semantics to a polymorphic effect analysis that tracks possiblythrown exceptions and possible nontermination for a higherorder language. The semantics is defined using partial equivalence relations over a standard monadic, domaintheoretic model of the original language and establishes ..."
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Cited by 13 (2 self)
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We give a semantics to a polymorphic effect analysis that tracks possiblythrown exceptions and possible nontermination for a higherorder language. The semantics is defined using partial equivalence relations over a standard monadic, domaintheoretic model of the original language and establishes the correctness of both the analysis itself and of the contextual program transformations that it enables.
Handlers of Algebraic Effects
"... Abstract. We present an algebraic treatment of exception handlers and, more generally, introduce handlers for other computational effects representable by an algebraic theory. These include nondeterminism, interactive input/output, concurrency, state, time, and their combinations; in all cases the c ..."
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Cited by 13 (1 self)
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Abstract. We present an algebraic treatment of exception handlers and, more generally, introduce handlers for other computational effects representable by an algebraic theory. These include nondeterminism, interactive input/output, concurrency, state, time, and their combinations; in all cases the computation monad is the freemodel monad of the theory. Each such handler corresponds to a model of the theory for the effects at hand. The handling construct, which applies a handler to a computation, is based on the one introduced by Benton and Kennedy, and is interpreted using the homomorphism induced by the universal property of the free model. This general construct can be used to describe previously unrelated concepts from both theory and practice. 1
Exception Handlers as Extensible Cases
"... Abstract. Exceptions are an indispensable part of modern programming languages. They are, however, handled poorly, especially by higherorder languages such as Standard ML and Haskell: in both languages a welltyped program can unexpectedly fail due to an uncaught exception. In this paper, we propose ..."
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Cited by 12 (2 self)
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Abstract. Exceptions are an indispensable part of modern programming languages. They are, however, handled poorly, especially by higherorder languages such as Standard ML and Haskell: in both languages a welltyped program can unexpectedly fail due to an uncaught exception. In this paper, we propose a technique for typesafe exception handling. Our approach relies on representing exceptions as sums and assigning exception handlers polymorphic, extensible row types. Based on this representation, we describe an implicitly typed external language EL where welltyped programs do not raise any unhandled exceptions. EL relies on sums, extensible records, and polymorphism to represent exceptionhandling, and its type system is no more complicated than that for existing languages with polymorphic extensible records. EL is translated into an internal language IL that is a variant of System F extended with extensible records. The translation performs a CPS transformation to represent exception handlers as continuations. It also relies on duality to transform sums into records. (The details for this translation are given in an accompanying technical report.) We describe the implementation of a compiler for a concrete language based on EL. The compiler performs full type inference and translates ELstyle source code to machine code. Type inference relieves the programmer from having to provide explicit exception annotations. We believe that this is the first practical proposal for integrating exceptions into the type system of a higherorder language. 1
Monads and Adjunctions for Global Exceptions
, 2006
"... In this paper, we look at two categorical accounts of computational effects (strong monad as a model of the monadic metalanguage, adjunction as a model of callbypushvalue with stacks), and we adapt them to incorporate global exceptions. In each case, we extend the calculus with a construct, due t ..."
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Cited by 7 (1 self)
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In this paper, we look at two categorical accounts of computational effects (strong monad as a model of the monadic metalanguage, adjunction as a model of callbypushvalue with stacks), and we adapt them to incorporate global exceptions. In each case, we extend the calculus with a construct, due to Benton and Kennedy, that fuses exception handling with sequencing. This immediately gives us an equational theory, simply by adapting the equations for sequencing. We study the categorical semantics of the two equational theories. In the case of the monadic metalanguage, we see that a monad supporting exceptions is a coalgebra for a certain comonad. We further show, using Beck’s theorem, that, on a category with equalizers, the monad constructor for exceptions gives all such monads. In the case of callbypushvalue (CBPV) with stacks, we generalize the notion of CBPV adjunction so that a stack awaiting a value can deal both with a value being returned, and with an exception being raised. We see how to obtain a model of exceptions from a CBPV adjunction, and vice versa by restricting to those stacks that are homomorphic with respect to exception raising.
From Applicative to Environmental Bisimulation
 MFPS 2011
, 2011
"... We illuminate important aspects of the semantics of higherorder functions that are common in the presence of local state, exceptions, names and type abstraction via a series of examples that add to those given by Stark. Most importantly we show that any of these language features gives rise to the ..."
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Cited by 4 (1 self)
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We illuminate important aspects of the semantics of higherorder functions that are common in the presence of local state, exceptions, names and type abstraction via a series of examples that add to those given by Stark. Most importantly we show that any of these language features gives rise to the phenomenon that certain behaviour of higherorder functions can only be observed by providing them with arguments which internally call the functions again. Other examples show the need for the observer to accumulate values received from the program and generate new names. This provides evidence for the necessity of complex conditions for functions in the definition of environmental bisimulation, which deviates in each of these ways from that of applicative bisimulation.
Handlers in Action
"... We lay operational foundations for effect handlers. Introduced by Plotkin and Pretnar, effect handlers are a novel programming construct that generalises exception handlers, handling a range of computational effects, such as I/O, state, and nondeterminism. We propose a smallstep structural operatio ..."
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Cited by 3 (0 self)
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We lay operational foundations for effect handlers. Introduced by Plotkin and Pretnar, effect handlers are a novel programming construct that generalises exception handlers, handling a range of computational effects, such as I/O, state, and nondeterminism. We propose a smallstep structural operational semantics for a higherorder calculus of effect handlers, along with a sound type and effect system. We explore two alternative effect handler implementation techniques: free monads, and delimited continuations. Finally, we show that Filinski’s monadic reflection can be straightforwardly simulated by effect handlers. 1.