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253
Structured compressed sensing: From theory to applications
 IEEE TRANS. SIGNAL PROCESS
, 2011
"... Compressed sensing (CS) is an emerging field that has attracted considerable research interest over the past few years. Previous review articles in CS limit their scope to standard discretetodiscrete measurement architectures using matrices of randomized nature and signal models based on standard ..."
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Cited by 21 (6 self)
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Compressed sensing (CS) is an emerging field that has attracted considerable research interest over the past few years. Previous review articles in CS limit their scope to standard discretetodiscrete measurement architectures using matrices of randomized nature and signal models based on standard sparsity. In recent years, CS has worked its way into several new application areas. This, in turn, necessitates a fresh look on many of the basics of CS. The random matrix measurement operator must be replaced by more structured sensing architectures that correspond to the characteristics of feasible acquisition hardware. The standard sparsity prior has to be extended to include a much richer class of signals and to encode broader data models, including continuoustime signals. In our overview, the theme is exploiting signal and measurement structure in compressive sensing. The prime focus is bridging theory and practice; that is, to pinpoint the potential of structured CS strategies to emerge from the math to the hardware. Our summary highlights new directions as well as relations to more traditional CS, with the hope of serving both as a review to practitioners wanting to join this emerging field, and as a reference for researchers that attempts to put some of the existing ideas in perspective of practical applications.
Sparse unmixing of hyperspectral data
 IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
"... Abstract—Linear spectral unmixing is a popular tool in remotely sensed hyperspectral data interpretation. It aims at estimating the fractional abundances of pure spectral signatures (also called as endmembers) in each mixed pixel collected by an imaging spectrometer. In many situations, the identifi ..."
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Abstract—Linear spectral unmixing is a popular tool in remotely sensed hyperspectral data interpretation. It aims at estimating the fractional abundances of pure spectral signatures (also called as endmembers) in each mixed pixel collected by an imaging spectrometer. In many situations, the identification of the endmember signatures in the original data set may be challenging due to insufficient spatial resolution, mixtures happening at different scales, and unavailability of completely pure spectral signatures in the scene. However, the unmixing problem can also be approached in semisupervised fashion, i.e., by assuming that the observed image signatures can be expressed in the form of linear combinations of a number of pure spectral signatures known in advance (e.g., spectra collected on the ground by a field spectroradiometer). Unmixing then amounts to finding the optimal subset of signatures in a (potentially very large) spectral library that can best model
Alternating minimization and projection methods for nonconvex problems
 0801.1780v2[math.oc], arXiv
, 2008
"... Abstract We study the convergence properties of alternating proximal minimization algorithms for (nonconvex) functions of the following type: L(x,y) = f(x) + Q(x,y) + g(y) where f: R n → R∪{+∞} and g: R m → R∪{+∞} are proper lower semicontinuous functions and Q: R n ×R m → R is a smooth C 1 (finite ..."
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Cited by 18 (2 self)
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Abstract We study the convergence properties of alternating proximal minimization algorithms for (nonconvex) functions of the following type: L(x,y) = f(x) + Q(x,y) + g(y) where f: R n → R∪{+∞} and g: R m → R∪{+∞} are proper lower semicontinuous functions and Q: R n ×R m → R is a smooth C 1 (finite valued) function which couples the variables x and y. The algorithm is defined by: (x0, y0) ∈ R n × R m given, (xk, yk) → (xk+1, yk) → (xk+1, yk+1)
CoherenceBased Performance Guarantees for Estimating a Sparse Vector Under Random Noise
"... We consider the problem of estimating a deterministic sparse vector x0 from underdetermined measurements Ax0 + w, where w represents white Gaussian noise and A is a given deterministic dictionary. We analyze the performance of three sparse estimation algorithms: basis pursuit denoising (BPDN), orth ..."
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Cited by 18 (10 self)
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We consider the problem of estimating a deterministic sparse vector x0 from underdetermined measurements Ax0 + w, where w represents white Gaussian noise and A is a given deterministic dictionary. We analyze the performance of three sparse estimation algorithms: basis pursuit denoising (BPDN), orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP), and thresholding. These algorithms are shown to achieve nearoracle performance with high probability, assuming that x0 is sufficiently sparse. Our results are nonasymptotic and are based only on the coherence of A, so that they are applicable to arbitrary dictionaries. Differences in the precise conditions required for the performance guarantees of each algorithm are manifested in the observed performance at high and low signaltonoise ratios. This provides insight on the advantages and drawbacks of ℓ1 relaxation techniques such as BPDN as opposed to greedy approaches such as OMP and thresholding.
A sparsification approach to set membership identification of a class of affine hybrid systems
 In Proc. IEEE Conf. Dec. Contr
, 2008
"... Abstract—This paper addresses the problem of robust identification of a class of discretetime affine hybrid systems, switched affine models, in a set membership framework. Given a finite collection of noisy input/output data and some minimal a priori information about the set of admissible plants, ..."
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Abstract—This paper addresses the problem of robust identification of a class of discretetime affine hybrid systems, switched affine models, in a set membership framework. Given a finite collection of noisy input/output data and some minimal a priori information about the set of admissible plants, the objective is to identify a suitable set of affine models along with a switching sequence that can explain the available experimental information, while minimizing either the number of switches or subsystems. For the case where it is desired to minimize the number of switches, the key idea of the paper is to reduce this problem to a sparsification form, where the goal is to maximize sparsity of a suitably constructed vector sequence. Our main result shows that in the case of bounded noise, this sparsification problem can be exactly solved via convex optimization. In the general case where the noise is only known to belong to a convex set, the problem is generically NPhard. However, as we show in the paper, efficient convex relaxations can be obtained by exploiting recent results on sparse signal recovery. Similarly, we present both a sparsification formulation and a convex relaxation for the (known to be NP hard) case where it is desired to minimize the number of subsystems. These results are illustrated using two nontrivial problems arising in computer vision applications: videoshot and dynamic texture segmentation. Index Terms—Hybrid systems, piecewise affine systems, set membership identification, sparse signal recovery. I.
Dense error correction via ℓ1 minimization
, 2009
"... This paper studies the problem of recovering a nonnegative sparse signal x ∈ Rn from highly corrupted linear measurements y = Ax + e ∈ Rm, where e is an unknown error vector whose nonzero entries may be unbounded. Motivated by an observation from face recognition in computer vision, this paper prov ..."
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Cited by 17 (5 self)
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This paper studies the problem of recovering a nonnegative sparse signal x ∈ Rn from highly corrupted linear measurements y = Ax + e ∈ Rm, where e is an unknown error vector whose nonzero entries may be unbounded. Motivated by an observation from face recognition in computer vision, this paper proves that for highly correlated (and possibly overcomplete) dictionaries A, any nonnegative, sufficiently sparse signal x can be recovered by solving an ℓ1minimization problem: min ‖x‖1 + ‖e‖1 subject to y = Ax + e. More precisely, if the fraction ρ of errors is bounded away from one and the support of x grows sublinearly in the dimension m of the observation, then as m goes to infinity, the above ℓ1minimization succeeds for all signals x and almost all signandsupport patterns of e. This result suggests that accurate recovery of sparse signals is possible and computationally feasible even with nearly 100 % of the observations corrupted. The proof relies on a careful characterization of the faces of a convex polytope spanned together by the standard crosspolytope and a set of iid Gaussian vectors with nonzero mean and small variance, which we call the “crossandbouquet ” model. Simulations and experimental results corroborate the findings, and suggest extensions to the result.
COMPRESSED REMOTE SENSING OF SPARSE OBJECTS
"... Abstract. The linear inverse source and scattering problems are studied from the perspective of compressed sensing. By introducing the sensor as well as target ensembles, the maximum number of recoverable targets is proved to be at least proportional to the number of measurement data modulo a logsq ..."
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Abstract. The linear inverse source and scattering problems are studied from the perspective of compressed sensing. By introducing the sensor as well as target ensembles, the maximum number of recoverable targets is proved to be at least proportional to the number of measurement data modulo a logsquare factor with overwhelming probability. Important contributions include the discoveries of the threshold aperture, consistent with the classical Rayleigh criterion, and the incoherence effect induced by random antenna locations. The prediction of theorems are confirmed by numerical simulations. 1.
The Cosparse Analysis Model and Algorithms
, 2011
"... After a decade of extensive study of the sparse representation synthesis model, we can safely say that this is a mature and stable field, with clear theoretical foundations, and appealing applications. Alongside this approach, there is an analysis counterpart model, which, despite its similarity to ..."
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Cited by 16 (8 self)
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After a decade of extensive study of the sparse representation synthesis model, we can safely say that this is a mature and stable field, with clear theoretical foundations, and appealing applications. Alongside this approach, there is an analysis counterpart model, which, despite its similarity to the synthesis alternative, is markedly different. Surprisingly, the analysis model did not get a similar attention, and its understanding today is shallow and partial. In this paper we take a closer look at the analysis approach, better define it as a generative model for signals, and contrast it with the synthesis one. This workproposeseffectivepursuitmethodsthat aimtosolveinverseproblemsregularized with the analysismodel prior, accompanied by a preliminary theoretical study of their performance. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the analysis model in several experiments.
Emerging Topic Detection using Dictionary Learning Shiva Prasad
"... Streaming usergenerated content in the form of blogs, microblogs, forums, and multimedia sharing sites, provides a rich source of data from which invaluable information and insights maybe gleaned. Given the vast volume of such social media data being continually generated, one of the challenges is ..."
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Cited by 12 (7 self)
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Streaming usergenerated content in the form of blogs, microblogs, forums, and multimedia sharing sites, provides a rich source of data from which invaluable information and insights maybe gleaned. Given the vast volume of such social media data being continually generated, one of the challenges is to automatically tease apart the emerging topics of discussion from the constant background chatter. Such emerging topics can be identified by the appearance of multiple posts on a unique subject matter, which is distinct from previous online discourse. We address the problem of identifying emerging topics through the use of dictionary learning. We propose a two stage approach respectively based on detection and clustering of novel usergenerated content. We derive a scalable approach by using the alternating directions method to solve the resulting optimization problems. Empirical results show that our proposed approach is more effective than several baselines in detecting emerging topics in traditional news story and newsgroup data. We also demonstrate the practical application to social media analysis, based on a study on streaming data from Twitter. 1.