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Synchronization and linearity: an algebra for discrete event systems
, 2001
"... The first edition of this book was published in 1992 by Wiley (ISBN 0 471 93609 X). Since this book is now out of print, and to answer the request of several colleagues, the authors have decided to make it available freely on the Web, while retaining the copyright, for the benefit of the scientific ..."
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Cited by 250 (10 self)
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The first edition of this book was published in 1992 by Wiley (ISBN 0 471 93609 X). Since this book is now out of print, and to answer the request of several colleagues, the authors have decided to make it available freely on the Web, while retaining the copyright, for the benefit of the scientific community. Copyright Statement This electronic document is in PDF format. One needs Acrobat Reader (available freely for most platforms from the Adobe web site) to benefit from the full interactive machinery: using the package hyperref by Sebastian Rahtz, the table of contents and all LATEX crossreferences are automatically converted into clickable hyperlinks, bookmarks are generated automatically, etc.. So, do not hesitate to click on references to equation or section numbers, on items of thetableofcontents and of the index, etc.. One may freely use and print this document for one’s own purpose or even distribute it freely, but not commercially, provided it is distributed in its entirety and without modifications, including this preface and copyright statement. Any use of thecontents should be acknowledged according to the standard scientific practice. The
Algebraic Tools for the Performance Evaluation of Discrete Event Systems
 IEEE Proceedings: Special issue on Discrete Event Systems
, 1989
"... In this paper, it is shown that a certain class of Petri nets called event graphs can be represented as linear "timeinvariant" finitedimensional systems using some particular algebras. This sets the ground on which a theory of these systems can be developped in a manner which is very analogous to ..."
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Cited by 65 (6 self)
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In this paper, it is shown that a certain class of Petri nets called event graphs can be represented as linear "timeinvariant" finitedimensional systems using some particular algebras. This sets the ground on which a theory of these systems can be developped in a manner which is very analogous to that of conventional linear system theory. Part 2 of the paper is devoted to showing some preliminary basic developments in that direction. Indeed, there are several ways in which one can consider event graphs as linear systems: these ways correspond to approaches in the time domain, in the event domain and in a twodimensional domain. In each of these approaches, a di#erent algebra has to be used for models to remain linear. However, the common feature of these algebras is that they all fall into the axiomatic definition of "dioids". Therefore, Part 1 of the paper is devoted to a unified presentation of basic algebraic results on dioids. 1 Introduction Definitions and examples of Discrete ...
The extended linear complementarity problem and its applications in the maxplus algebra
, 1995
"... ..."
Faster Maximum and Minimum Mean Cycle Algorithms for System Performance Analysis
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTERAIDED DESIGN OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS
, 1997
"... Maximum and minimum mean cycle problems are important problems with many applications in performance analysis of synchronous and asynchronous digital systems including rate analysis of embedded systems, in discreteevent systems, and in graph theory. Karp's algorithm is one of the fastest and common ..."
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Cited by 56 (6 self)
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Maximum and minimum mean cycle problems are important problems with many applications in performance analysis of synchronous and asynchronous digital systems including rate analysis of embedded systems, in discreteevent systems, and in graph theory. Karp's algorithm is one of the fastest and commonest algorithms for both of these problems. We present this paper mainly in the context of the maximum mean cycle problem. We show that Karp's algorithm processes more vertices and arcs than needed to find the maximum cycle mean of a digraph. This observation motivated us to propose a new graph unfolding scheme that remedies this deficiency and leads to three faster algorithms with different characteristics. Asymptotic analysis tells us that our algorithms always run faster than Karp's algorithm. Experiments on benchmark graphs confirm this fact for most of the graphs. Like Karp's algorithm, they are also applicable to both the maximum and minimum mean cycle problems. Moreover, one of them is...
Modeling and Analysis of Timed Petri Nets Using Heaps of Pieces
, 1997
"... We show that safe timed Petri nets can be represented by special automata over the (max,+) semiring, which compute the height of heaps of pieces. This extends to the timed case the classical representation a la Mazurkievicz of the behavior of safe Petri nets by trace monoids and trace languages. Fo ..."
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Cited by 44 (15 self)
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We show that safe timed Petri nets can be represented by special automata over the (max,+) semiring, which compute the height of heaps of pieces. This extends to the timed case the classical representation a la Mazurkievicz of the behavior of safe Petri nets by trace monoids and trace languages. For a subclass including all safe Free Choice Petri nets, we obtain reduced heap realizations using structural properties of the net (covering by safe state machine components). We illustrate the heapbased modeling by the typical case of safe jobshops. For a periodic schedule, we obtain a heapbased throughput formula, which is simpler to compute than its traditional timed event graph version, particularly if one is interested in the successive evaluation of a large number of possible schedules. Keywords Timed Petri nets, automata with multiplicities, heaps of pieces, (max,+) semiring, scheduling. I. Introduction The purpose of this paper 1 is to prove the following result: Timed safe Pe...
Maxplus algebra and system theory: Where we are and where to go now
 Annu. Rev. Control
, 1999
"... Abstract: More than sixteen years after the beginning of a linear theory for certain discrete event systems in which maxplus algebra and similar algebraic tools play a central role, this paper attempts to summarize some of the main achievements in an informal style based on examples. By comparison ..."
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Cited by 42 (18 self)
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Abstract: More than sixteen years after the beginning of a linear theory for certain discrete event systems in which maxplus algebra and similar algebraic tools play a central role, this paper attempts to summarize some of the main achievements in an informal style based on examples. By comparison with classical linear system theory, there are areas which are practically untouched, mostly because the corresponding mathematical tools are yet to be fabricated. This is the case of the geometric approach of systems which is known, in the classical theory, to provide another important insight to systemtheoretic and controlsynthesis problems, beside the algebraic machinery. A preliminary discussion of geometric aspects in the maxplus algebra and their use for system theory is proposed in the last part of the paper. Résumé: Plus de seize ans après le début d’une théorie linéaire de certains systèmes à événements discrets dans laquelle l’algèbre maxplus et autres outils algébriques assimilés jouent un rôle central, ce papier cherche àdécrire quelques uns des principaux résultats obtenus de façon informelle, en s’appuyant sur des exemples. Par comparaison avec la théorie classique des systèmes linéaires, il existe des domaines pratiquement vierges, surtout en raison du fait que les outils mathématiques correspondants restent à forger. C’est en particulier le cas de l’approche géométrique des systèmes qui, dans la théorie classique, est connue pour apporter un autre regard important sur les questions de théorie des systèmes et de synthèse de lois de commandes àcôté de la machinerie purement algébrique. Une discussion préliminaire sur les aspects géométriques de l’algèbre maxplus et leur utilité pour la théorie des systèmes est proposée dans la dernière partie du papier.
Asymptotic height optimization for topical IFS, Tetris heaps, and the finiteness conjecture
 J. of the American Mathematical Society
, 2001
"... A topical map is a map from Rn into itself verifying some conditions (see §1.2) and which, roughly speaking, behaves like a translation along some line, the amount of which is measured by a real number, called the average height (or average displacement) of the map. Then we look at a topical Iterate ..."
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Cited by 36 (3 self)
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A topical map is a map from Rn into itself verifying some conditions (see §1.2) and which, roughly speaking, behaves like a translation along some line, the amount of which is measured by a real number, called the average height (or average displacement) of the map. Then we look at a topical Iterated Function System (IFS),
Duality and separation theorems in idempotent semimodules
 Linear Algebra and its Applications 379 (2004), 395–422. Also arXiv:math.FA/0212294
"... Abstract. We consider subsemimodules and convex subsets of semimodules over semirings with an idempotent addition. We introduce a nonlinear projection on subsemimodules: the projection of a point is the maximal approximation from below of the point in the subsemimodule. We use this projection to sep ..."
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Cited by 35 (19 self)
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Abstract. We consider subsemimodules and convex subsets of semimodules over semirings with an idempotent addition. We introduce a nonlinear projection on subsemimodules: the projection of a point is the maximal approximation from below of the point in the subsemimodule. We use this projection to separate a point from a convex set. We also show that the projection minimizes the analogue of Hilbert’s projective metric. We develop more generally a theory of dual pairs for idempotent semimodules. We obtain as a corollary duality results between the row and column spaces of matrices with entries in idempotent semirings. We illustrate the results by showing polyhedra and halfspaces over the maxplus semiring. 1.
Model Predictive Control for MaxPlusLinear Systems
, 1999
"... Model predictive control (MPC) is a very popular controller design method in the process industry. An important advantage of MPC is that it allows the inclusion of constraints on the inputs and outputs. Usually MPC uses linear discretetime models. In this paper we extend MPC to a class of discrete e ..."
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Cited by 27 (15 self)
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Model predictive control (MPC) is a very popular controller design method in the process industry. An important advantage of MPC is that it allows the inclusion of constraints on the inputs and outputs. Usually MPC uses linear discretetime models. In this paper we extend MPC to a class of discrete event systems, i.e. we present an MPC framework for maxpluslinear systems. In general the resulting optimization problem is nonlinear and nonconvex. However, if the control objective and the constraints depend monotonically on the outputs of the system, the MPC problem can be recast as problem with a convex feasible set. If in addition the objective function is convex, this leads to a convex optimization problem, which can be solved very efficiently.
Cyclic Scheduling on Parallel Processors: An Overview
, 1994
"... A recent research effort has been devoted to cyclic scheduling problems that arise in the design of compilers for parallel architectures as well as in manufacturing systems. This paper is focused on the extensions of the basic cyclic scheduling problem (BCS), that seems to be one of the most suitabl ..."
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Cited by 22 (1 self)
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A recent research effort has been devoted to cyclic scheduling problems that arise in the design of compilers for parallel architectures as well as in manufacturing systems. This paper is focused on the extensions of the basic cyclic scheduling problem (BCS), that seems to be one of the most suitable model for parallel processing applications. The properties of the earliest schedule of BCS are recalled and their most recent extensions are presented. Several generalizations of BCS that include resource constraints are then discussed. In particular, structural results and algorithms for periodic versions of jobshop and mmachines problems are reported. 4.1 Introduction Up to now, cyclic scheduling problems have been studied from several points of view depending on the target application. A few theoretical studies have been recently devoted to these problems, in which basic results are often proved independently using different formalisms. We hope that this paper, without pretending to...