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Scheduling Distributed Applications: The SimGrid Simulation Framework
 In Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid (CCGrid’03
, 2003
"... Abstract — Since the advent of distributed computer systems an active field of research has been the investigation of scheduling strategies for parallel applications. The common approach is to employ scheduling heuristics that approximate an optimal schedule. Unfortunately, it is often impossible to ..."
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Cited by 122 (30 self)
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Abstract — Since the advent of distributed computer systems an active field of research has been the investigation of scheduling strategies for parallel applications. The common approach is to employ scheduling heuristics that approximate an optimal schedule. Unfortunately, it is often impossible to obtain analytical results to compare the efficacy of these heuristics. One possibility is to conducts large numbers of backtoback experiments on real platforms. While this is possible on tightlycoupled platforms, it is infeasible on modern distributed platforms (i.e. Grids) as it is laborintensive and does not enable repeatable results. The solution is to resort to simulations. Simulations not only enables repeatable results but also make it possible to explore wide ranges of platform and application scenarios. In this paper we present the SimGrid framework which enables the simulation of distributed applications in distributed computing environments for the specific purpose of developing and evaluating scheduling algorithms. This paper focuses on SimGrid v2, which greatly improves on the first version of the software with more realistic networkmodels and topologies. SimGrid v2 also enables the simulation of distributed scheduling agents, which has become critical for current scheduling research in largescale platforms. After describing and validating these features, we present a case study by which we demonstrate the usefulness of SimGrid for conducting scheduling research. I.
Scheduling Strategies for MasterSlave Tasking on Heterogeneous Processor Grids
, 2002
"... In this paper, we consider the problem of allocating a large number of independent, equalsized tasks to a heterogeneous "grid" computing platform. We use a nonoriented graph to model a grid, where resources can have different speeds of computation and communication, as well as different ..."
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Cited by 88 (36 self)
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In this paper, we consider the problem of allocating a large number of independent, equalsized tasks to a heterogeneous "grid" computing platform. We use a nonoriented graph to model a grid, where resources can have different speeds of computation and communication, as well as different overlap capabilities. We show how to determine the optimal steadystate scheduling strategy for each processor (the fraction of time spent computing and the fraction of time spent communicating with each neighbor). This result holds for a quite general framework, allowing for cycles and multiple paths in the interconnection graph, and allowing for several masters. Because
DIET: A Scalable Toolbox to Build Network Enabled Servers on the Grid
 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING APPLICATIONS
, 2006
"... Among existing grid middleware approaches, one simple, powerful, and flexible approach consists of using servers available in different administrative domains through the classical clientserver or Remote Procedure Call (RPC) paradigm. Network Enabled Servers implement this ..."
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Cited by 80 (35 self)
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Among existing grid middleware approaches, one simple, powerful, and flexible approach consists of using servers available in different administrative domains through the classical clientserver or Remote Procedure Call (RPC) paradigm. Network Enabled Servers implement this
UMR: A MultiRound Algorithm for Scheduling Divisible Workloads
 In Proceedings of the International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium (IPDPS’03
, 2003
"... Divisible load applications occur in many fields of science and engineering, can be easily parallelized in a masterworker fashion, but pose several scheduling challenges. While a number of approaches have been proposed that allocate work to workers in a single round, using multiple rounds improves ..."
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Cited by 63 (6 self)
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Divisible load applications occur in many fields of science and engineering, can be easily parallelized in a masterworker fashion, but pose several scheduling challenges. While a number of approaches have been proposed that allocate work to workers in a single round, using multiple rounds improves overlap of computation with communication. Unfortunately, multiround algorithms are difficult to analyze and have thus received only limited attention. In this paper we answer three open questions in the multiround divisible load scheduling area: (i) How to account for latencies? (ii) How to account for heterogeneous platforms; and (iii) How many rounds should be used? To answer (i), we derive the first closedform optimal schedule for a homogeneous platform with both computation and communication latencies, for a given number of rounds. To answer (ii) and (iii), we present a novel algorithm, UMR. We use simulation to evaluate UMR in a variety of realistic scenarios.
Optimal sharing of bags of tasks in heterogeneous clusters
 in Proc. of the fifteenth annual ACM Symposium on Parallel Algorithms and Architectures
"... We prove that “FIFO ” worksharing protocols provide asymptotically optimal solutions to a problem related to sharing a bag of identically complex tasks in a heterogeneous network of workstations (HNOW) N. In the HNOWExploitation Problem, one seeks to accomplish as much work as possible on N during ..."
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Cited by 39 (1 self)
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We prove that “FIFO ” worksharing protocols provide asymptotically optimal solutions to a problem related to sharing a bag of identically complex tasks in a heterogeneous network of workstations (HNOW) N. In the HNOWExploitation Problem, one seeks to accomplish as much work as possible on N during a prespecified fixed period of L time units. The worksharing protocols we study are crafted within an architectural model that characterizes N via parameters that measure workstations ’ computational and communicational powers. The protocols are selfscheduling, in that they determine completely both an amount of work to allocate to each of N ’s workstations and a schedule for all related interworkstation communications. A protocol observes a FIFO regimenifithasN ’s workstations finish their assigned work, and return their results, in the same order in which they are supplied with their workloads. The optimality of FIFO protocols resides in the fact that they accomplish at least as much work as any other protocol during all sufficiently long worksharing episodes. Simulation experiments indicate that the superiority of FIFO protocols is often observed during worksharing episodes of only a few minutes ’ duration.
Optimal Algorithms for Scheduling Divisible Workloads on Heterogeneous Systems
, 2002
"... In this paper, we discuss several algorithms for scheduling divisible loads on heterogeneous systems. Our main contributions are (i) new optimality results for singleround algorithms and (ii) the design of an asymptotically optimal multiround algorithm. This multiround algorithm automatically ..."
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Cited by 33 (3 self)
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In this paper, we discuss several algorithms for scheduling divisible loads on heterogeneous systems. Our main contributions are (i) new optimality results for singleround algorithms and (ii) the design of an asymptotically optimal multiround algorithm. This multiround algorithm automatically performs resource selection, a difficult task that was previously left to the user. Because it is periodic, it is simpler to implement, and more robust to changes in the speeds of processors or communication links. On the theoretical side, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first published result assessing the absolute performance of a multiround algorithm. On the practical side, extensive simulations reveal that our multiround algorithm outperforms existing solutions on a large variety of platforms, especially when the communicationtocomputation ratio is not very high (the difficult case).
Exploiting Replication and Data Reuse to Efficiently Schedule DataIntensive Applications on Grids
, 2004
"... Dataintensive applications executing over a computational grid demand large data transfers. These are costly operations. Therefore, taking them into account is mandatory to achieve efficient scheduling of dataintensive applications on grids. Further, within a heterogeneous and ever changing enviro ..."
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Cited by 31 (11 self)
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Dataintensive applications executing over a computational grid demand large data transfers. These are costly operations. Therefore, taking them into account is mandatory to achieve efficient scheduling of dataintensive applications on grids. Further, within a heterogeneous and ever changing environment such as a grid, better schedules are typically attained by heuristics that use dynamic information about the grid and the applications. However, these information are often difficult to be accurately obtained. On the other hand, although there are schedulers that attain good performance without requiring dynamic information, they were not designed to take data transfer into account. This paper presents Storage Affinity, a novel scheduling heuristic for bagoftasks dataintensive applications running on grid environments. Storage Affinity...
Autonomous protocols for bandwidthcentric scheduling of independenttask applications
 In International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium IPDPS’2003. IEEE Computer
, 2003
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Centralized Versus Distributed Schedulers for Multiple BagofTasks Applications
, 2006
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