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Noise Considerations in Circuit Optimization
 In Proc. International Conference on ComputerAided Design
, 1998
"... Noise can cause digital circuits to switch incorrectly and thus produce spurious results. Noise can also have adverse power, timing and reliability e ects. Dynamic logic is particularly susceptible to chargesharing and coupling noise. Thus the design and optimization of a circuit should take noise ..."
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Cited by 13 (0 self)
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Noise can cause digital circuits to switch incorrectly and thus produce spurious results. Noise can also have adverse power, timing and reliability e ects. Dynamic logic is particularly susceptible to chargesharing and coupling noise. Thus the design and optimization of a circuit should take noise considerations into account. Such considerations are typically stated as semiin nite constraints. In addition, the number of signals to be checked and the number of subintervals of time during which the checking must be performed can potentially be very large. Thus, the practical incorporation of noise constraints during circuit optimization is a hitherto unsolved problem. This paper describes a novel method for incorporating noise considerations during automatic circuit optimization. Semiin nite constraints representing noise considerations are rst converted toordinary equality constraints involving time integrals, which are readily computed in the context of circuit optimization based on timedomain simulation. Next, the gradients of these integrals are computed by the adjoint method. By using an augmented Lagrangian optimization merit function, the adjoint method is applied tocompute all the necessary gradients required for optimization in a single adjoint analysis, no matter how many noise measurements are considered and irrespective of the dimensionality of the problem. Numerical results are presented. 1
A heuristic for optimizing stochastic activity networks with applications to statistical digital circuit sizing
 IEEE Transactions on Circuits and SystemsI
, 2004
"... A deterministic activity network (DAN) is a collection of activities, each with some duration, along with a set of precedence constraints, which specify that activities begin only when certain others have finished. One critical performance measure for an activity network is its makespan, which is th ..."
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Cited by 12 (4 self)
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A deterministic activity network (DAN) is a collection of activities, each with some duration, along with a set of precedence constraints, which specify that activities begin only when certain others have finished. One critical performance measure for an activity network is its makespan, which is the minimum time required to complete all activities. In a stochastic activity network (SAN), the durations of the activities and the makespan are random variables. The analysis of SANs is quite involved, but can be carried out numerically by Monte Carlo analysis. This paper concerns the optimization of a SAN, i.e., the choice of some design variables that affect the probability distributions of the activity durations. We concentrate on the problem of minimizing a quantile (e.g., 95%) of the makespan, subject to constraints on the variables. This problem has many applications, ranging from project management to digital integrated circuit (IC) sizing (the latter being our motivation). While there are effective methods for optimizing DANs, the SAN optimization problem is much more difficult; the few existing methods cannot handle largescale problems.
TwoStep Algorithms for Nonlinear Optimization with Structured Applications
 SIAM Journal on Optimization
, 1999
"... In this paper we propose extensions to trustregion algorithms in which the classical step is augmented with a second step that we insist yields a decrease in the value of the objective function. The classical convergence theory for trustregion algorithms is adapted to this class of twostep alg ..."
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Cited by 10 (6 self)
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In this paper we propose extensions to trustregion algorithms in which the classical step is augmented with a second step that we insist yields a decrease in the value of the objective function. The classical convergence theory for trustregion algorithms is adapted to this class of twostep algorithms. The algorithms can be applied to any problem with variable(s) whose contribution to the objective function is a known functional form. In the nonlinear programming package LANCELOT, they have been applied to update slack variables and variables introduced to solve minimax problems, leading to enhanced optimization eciency. Extensive numerical results are presented to show the eectiveness of these techniques. Keywords. Trust regions, line searches, twostep algorithms, spacer steps, slack variables, LANCELOT, minimax problems, expensive function evaluations, circuit optimization. AMS subject classications. 49M37, 90C06, 90C30 1 Introduction In nonlinear optimization proble...
Efficient and Accurate Gate Sizing with Piecewise Convex Delay Models
 DAC 2005
, 2005
"... We present an efficient and accurate gate sizing tool that employs a novel piecewise convex delay model, handling both rise and fall delays, for static CMOS gates. The delay model is used in a new version of a gatesizing tool called Forge, which not only exhibits optimality, but also efficiently pr ..."
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Cited by 4 (0 self)
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We present an efficient and accurate gate sizing tool that employs a novel piecewise convex delay model, handling both rise and fall delays, for static CMOS gates. The delay model is used in a new version of a gatesizing tool called Forge, which not only exhibits optimality, but also efficiently produces the area versus delay tradeoff curve for a block in one step. Forge includes a realistic delay propagation scheme that combines arrival times and slewrates. Forge is 6.4X faster than a commercial transistor sizing tool, while achieving better delay targets and uses 28 % less transistor area for specific delay targets, on average.
LargeScale Nonlinear Optimization in Circuit Tuning
, 2003
"... Circuit tuning is an important task in the design of custom digital integrated circuits such as highperformance microprocessors. The goal is to improve certain aspects of the circuit, such as speed, area, or power, by optimally choosing the sizes of the transistors. This task can be formulated as a ..."
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Cited by 3 (1 self)
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Circuit tuning is an important task in the design of custom digital integrated circuits such as highperformance microprocessors. The goal is to improve certain aspects of the circuit, such as speed, area, or power, by optimally choosing the sizes of the transistors. This task can be formulated as a largescale nonlinear, nonconvex optimization problem, where function values and derivatives are obtained by simulation of individual gates. This application o#ers an excellent example of a nonlinear optimization problem, for which it is very desirable to increase the size of the problems that can be solved in a reasonable amount of time. In this paper we describe the mathematical formulation of this problem and the implementation of a circuit tuning tool. We demonstrate how the integration of a novel stateoftheart interior point algorithm for nonlinear programming led to considerable improvement in e# ciency and robustness. Particularly, as will be demonstrated with numerical results, the new approach has great potential for parallel and distributed computing.
The Generalized Boundary Curve  A Common Method for Automatic Nominal Design and Design Centering of Analog Circuits
 IN PROCEEDINGS DESIGN, AUTOMATION AND TEST IN EUROPE CONFERENCE AND EXHIBITION 2000
, 2000
"... In this paper, a new method for analog circuit sizing with respect to manufacturing and operating tolerances is presented. Two types of robustness objectives are presented, i.e. parameter distances for the nominal design and worstcase distances for the design centering. Moreover, the generalized bou ..."
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Cited by 3 (1 self)
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In this paper, a new method for analog circuit sizing with respect to manufacturing and operating tolerances is presented. Two types of robustness objectives are presented, i.e. parameter distances for the nominal design and worstcase distances for the design centering. Moreover, the generalized boundary curve is presented as a method to determine a parameter correction within an iterative trust region algorithm. Results show that a significant reduction in computational costs is achieved using the presented robustness objectives and generalized boundary curve.
Noise Considerations in . . .
"... Noise can cause digital circuits to switch incorrectly, producing spurious results. It can also have adverse power, timing and reliability effects. Dynamic logic is particularly susceptible to chargesharing and coupling noise. Thus the design and optimization of a circuit should take noise consider ..."
Abstract
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Noise can cause digital circuits to switch incorrectly, producing spurious results. It can also have adverse power, timing and reliability effects. Dynamic logic is particularly susceptible to chargesharing and coupling noise. Thus the design and optimization of a circuit should take noise considerations into account. Such considerations are typically stated as semiinfinite constraints in the timedomain. Semiinfinite problems are generally harder to solve than standard nonlinear optimization problems. Moreover, the number of noise constraints can potentially be very large. This paper