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Monads for functional programming
, 1995
"... The use of monads to structure functional programs is described. Monads provide a convenient framework for simulating effects found in other languages, such as global state, exception handling, output, or nondeterminism. Three case studies are looked at in detail: how monads ease the modification o ..."
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Cited by 1305 (37 self)
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The use of monads to structure functional programs is described. Monads provide a convenient framework for simulating effects found in other languages, such as global state, exception handling, output, or nondeterminism. Three case studies are looked at in detail: how monads ease the modification of a simple evaluator; how monads act as the basis of a datatype of arrays subject to inplace update; and how monads can be used to build parsers.
ProofCarrying Code
, 1997
"... This paper describes proofcarrying code (PCC), a mechanism by which a host system can determine with certainty thatitissafetoexecute a program supplied (possibly in binary form) by anuntrusted source. For this to be possible, the untrusted code producer must supply with the code a safety proof that ..."
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Cited by 1090 (24 self)
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This paper describes proofcarrying code (PCC), a mechanism by which a host system can determine with certainty thatitissafetoexecute a program supplied (possibly in binary form) by anuntrusted source. For this to be possible, the untrusted code producer must supply with the code a safety proof that attests to the code's adherence to a previously de ned safety policy. The host can then easily and quickly validate the proof without using cryptography and without consulting any external agents. In order to gain preliminary experience with PCC, we have performed several case studies. We showinthis paper how proofcarrying code mightbeusedtodevelop safe assemblylanguage extensions of ML programs. In the context of this case study, we present and prove the adequacy of concrete representations for the safety policy, the safety proofs, and the proof validation. Finally, we brie y discuss how we use proofcarrying code to develop network packet lters that are faster than similar lters developed using other techniques and are formally guaranteed to be safe with respect to a given operating system safety policy.
A Framework for Defining Logics
 JOURNAL OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR COMPUTING MACHINERY
, 1993
"... The Edinburgh Logical Framework (LF) provides a means to define (or present) logics. It is based on a general treatment of syntax, rules, and proofs by means of a typed calculus with dependent types. Syntax is treated in a style similar to, but more general than, MartinLof's system of arities. T ..."
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Cited by 695 (39 self)
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The Edinburgh Logical Framework (LF) provides a means to define (or present) logics. It is based on a general treatment of syntax, rules, and proofs by means of a typed calculus with dependent types. Syntax is treated in a style similar to, but more general than, MartinLof's system of arities. The treatment of rules and proofs focuses on his notion of a judgement. Logics are represented in LF via a new principle, the judgements as types principle, whereby each judgement is identified with the type of its proofs. This allows for a smooth treatment of discharge and variable occurrence conditions and leads to a uniform treatment of rules and proofs whereby rules are viewed as proofs of higherorder judgements and proof checking is reduced to type checking. The practical benefit of our treatment of formal systems is that logicindependent tools such as proof editors and proof checkers can be constructed.
From System F to Typed Assembly Language
 ACM TRANSACTIONS ON PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES AND SYSTEMS
, 1998
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A Syntactic Approach to Type Soundness
 Information and Computation
, 1992
"... We present a new approach to proving type soundness for Hindley/Milnerstyle polymorphic type systems. The keys to our approach are (1) an adaptation of subject reduction theorems from combinatory logic to programming languages, and (2) the use of rewriting techniques for the specification of the la ..."
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Cited by 538 (21 self)
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We present a new approach to proving type soundness for Hindley/Milnerstyle polymorphic type systems. The keys to our approach are (1) an adaptation of subject reduction theorems from combinatory logic to programming languages, and (2) the use of rewriting techniques for the specification of the language semantics. The approach easily extends from polymorphic functional languages to imperative languages that provide references, exceptions, continuations, and similar features. We illustrate the technique with a type soundness theorem for the core of Standard ML, which includes the first type soundness proof for polymorphic exceptions and continuations. 1 Type Soundness Static type systems for programming languages attempt to prevent the occurrence of type errors during execution. A definition of type error depends on a specific language and type system, but always includes the use of a function on arguments for which it is not defined, and the attempted application of a nonfunction. ...
Comprehending Monads
 Mathematical Structures in Computer Science
, 1992
"... Category theorists invented monads in the 1960's to concisely express certain aspects of universal algebra. Functional programmers invented list comprehensions in the 1970's to concisely express certain programs involving lists. This paper shows how list comprehensions may be generalised to an arbit ..."
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Cited by 455 (13 self)
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Category theorists invented monads in the 1960's to concisely express certain aspects of universal algebra. Functional programmers invented list comprehensions in the 1970's to concisely express certain programs involving lists. This paper shows how list comprehensions may be generalised to an arbitrary monad, and how the resulting programming feature can concisely express in a pure functional language some programs that manipulate state, handle exceptions, parse text, or invoke continuations. A new solution to the old problem of destructive array update is also presented. No knowledge of category theory is assumed.
Obliq  A language with distributed scope
, 1995
"... computation. An Obliq computation may involve multiple threads of control within an address space, multiple address spaces on a machine, heterogeneous machines over a local network, and multiple networks over the Internet. Obliq objects have state and are local to a site. Obliq computations can roam ..."
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Cited by 415 (13 self)
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computation. An Obliq computation may involve multiple threads of control within an address space, multiple address spaces on a machine, heterogeneous machines over a local network, and multiple networks over the Internet. Obliq objects have state and are local to a site. Obliq computations can roam over the network, while maintaining network connections.
How to Make AdHoc Polymorphism Less Ad Hoc
, 1988
"... This paper presents type classes, a new approach to adhoc polymorphism. Type classes permit overloading of arithmetic operators such as multiplication, and generalise the "eqtype variables" of Standard ML. Type classes extend the Hindley/Milner polymorphic type system, and provide a new approach to ..."
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Cited by 344 (3 self)
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This paper presents type classes, a new approach to adhoc polymorphism. Type classes permit overloading of arithmetic operators such as multiplication, and generalise the "eqtype variables" of Standard ML. Type classes extend the Hindley/Milner polymorphic type system, and provide a new approach to issues that arise in objectoriented programming, bounded type quantification, and abstract data types. This paper provides an informal introduction to type classes, and defines them formally by means of type inference rules. 1 Introduction Strachey chose the adjectives adhoc and parametric to distinguish two varieties of polymorphism [Str67]. Adhoc polymorphism occurs when a function is defined over several different types, acting in a different way for each type. A typical example is overloaded multiplication: the same symbol may be used to denote multiplication of integers (as in 3*3) and multiplication of floating point values (as in 3.14*3.14). Parametric polymorphism occurs wh...
Theorems for free!
 FUNCTIONAL PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES AND COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE
, 1989
"... From the type of a polymorphic function we can derive a theorem that it satisfies. Every function of the same type satisfies the same theorem. This provides a free source of useful theorems, courtesy of Reynolds' abstraction theorem for the polymorphic lambda calculus. ..."
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Cited by 326 (6 self)
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From the type of a polymorphic function we can derive a theorem that it satisfies. Every function of the same type satisfies the same theorem. This provides a free source of useful theorems, courtesy of Reynolds' abstraction theorem for the polymorphic lambda calculus.
Specification and analysis of system architecture using Rapide
 IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
, 1995
"... Rapide is an eventbased concurrent, objectoriented language specifically designed for prototyping system architectures. Two principle design goals are (1) to provide constructs for defining executable prototypes of architectures, and (2) to adopt an execution model in which the concurrency, sync ..."
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Cited by 322 (4 self)
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Rapide is an eventbased concurrent, objectoriented language specifically designed for prototyping system architectures. Two principle design goals are (1) to provide constructs for defining executable prototypes of architectures, and (2) to adopt an execution model in which the concurrency, synchronization, dataflow, and timing properties of a prototype are explicitly represented. This paper describes the partially ordered event set (poset) execution model and outlines with examples some of the eventbased features for defining communication architectures and relationships between architectures. Various features of Rapide are illustrated by excerpts from a prototype of the X/Open distributed transaction processing reference architecture.