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Ramsey's theorem and the pigeonhole principle in intuitionistic mathematics
 University of Utrecht, Dept of Philosophy
, 1992
"... At first sight, the argument which F. P. Ramsey gave for (the infinite case of) his famous theorem from 1927, is hopelessly unconstructive. If suitably reformulated, the theorem is true intuitionistically as well as classically: we offer a proof which should convince both the classical and the intui ..."
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At first sight, the argument which F. P. Ramsey gave for (the infinite case of) his famous theorem from 1927, is hopelessly unconstructive. If suitably reformulated, the theorem is true intuitionistically as well as classically: we offer a proof which should convince both the classical and the intuitionistic reader. 1.
Continuous functions on final coalgebras
, 2007
"... In a previous paper we have given a representation of continuous functions on streams, both discretevalued functions, and functions between streams. the topology on streams is the ‘Baire ’ topology induced by taking as a basic neighbourhood the set of streams that share a given finite prefix. We ga ..."
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Cited by 10 (1 self)
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In a previous paper we have given a representation of continuous functions on streams, both discretevalued functions, and functions between streams. the topology on streams is the ‘Baire ’ topology induced by taking as a basic neighbourhood the set of streams that share a given finite prefix. We gave also a combinator on the representations of stream processing functions that reflects composition. Streams are the simplest example of a nontrivial final coalgebras, playing in the coalgebraic realm the same role as do the natural numbers in the algebraic realm. Here we extend our previous results to cover the case of final coalgebras for a broad class of functors generalising (×A). The functors we deal with are those that arise from countable signatures of finiteplace untyped operators. These have many applications. The topology we put on the final coalgebra for such a functor is that induced by taking for basic neighbourhoods the set of infinite objects which share a common prefix, according to the usual definition of the final coalgebra as the limit of a certain inverse chain starting at �. 1
Realizability for constructive ZermeloFraenkel set theory
 STOLTENBERGHANSEN (EDS.): PROCEEDINGS OF THE LOGIC COLLOQUIUM 2003
, 2004
"... Constructive ZermeloFraenkel Set Theory, CZF, has emerged as a standard reference theory that relates to constructive predicative mathematics as ZFC relates to classical Cantorian mathematics. A hallmark of this theory is that it possesses a typetheoretic model. Aczel showed that it has a formulae ..."
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Cited by 6 (1 self)
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Constructive ZermeloFraenkel Set Theory, CZF, has emerged as a standard reference theory that relates to constructive predicative mathematics as ZFC relates to classical Cantorian mathematics. A hallmark of this theory is that it possesses a typetheoretic model. Aczel showed that it has a formulaeastypes interpretation in MartinLöf’s intuitionist theory of types [14, 15]. This paper, though, is concerned with a rather different interpretation. It is shown that Kleene realizability provides a selfvalidating semantics for CZF, viz. this notion of realizability can be formalized in CZF and demonstrably in CZF it can be verified that every theorem of CZF is realized. This semantics, then, is put to use in establishing several equiconsistency results. Specifically, augmenting CZF by wellknown principles germane to Russian constructivism and Brouwer’s intuitionism turns out to engender theories of equal prooftheoretic strength with the same stock of provably recursive functions.
Information Loss in the Programming Logic TK
 Programming Concepts and Methods
, 1990
"... this paper we investigate the topic of information loss in the constructive and intensional theory for programming development TK. The term information loss arose during the investigation of MartinLf's Type Theory [Mar 82] (MLTT) as a programming logic and it refers to techniques for removing compu ..."
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this paper we investigate the topic of information loss in the constructive and intensional theory for programming development TK. The term information loss arose during the investigation of MartinLf's Type Theory [Mar 82] (MLTT) as a programming logic and it refers to techniques for removing computationally redundant data from programs which are obtained by formal derivation from specifications. Earlier papers [Hen 89a] [Hen 89b] contain details of the theory TK and [HeT 88] presents a theory of which TK is a restriction. We have taken the opportunity in this paper of describing TK in its entirety and this appears as an appendix. We will devote the rest of this introduction to a motivation for the current work and explain how it is related to similar research which has used MLTT as a basis for a programming logic [Abb 87] [Con 86] [Kha 86] [Bac 89]. The reasons for investigating and using systems like TK and MLTT are, by now, quite well known: program specifications are assertions (in MLTT qua type) and it is possible to prove them within the system. Such proofs show that they are, in principle, satisfiable specifications and it is possible to extract programs that meet them from such proofs. Thus the enterprises of program derivation and specification are unified and one inherits a basic methodology for program derivation from the logical structure governing programs and types. Like MLTT, TK is a constructive theory of sets (sets in TK are types or kinds) but it differs from it in a number of respects, the most important of which, for the purposes of this paper, is that the language of TK separates the assertions or formulae from the types. MLTT, in contrast, makes use of the propositions as types identification [How 80] and so does not make this separation. We have ...
CZF has the disjunction and numerical existence property. Available from the author’s web page www.amsta.leeds.ac.uk/Pure/staff/rathjen/preprints.html
, 2004
"... This paper proves that the disjunction property, the numerical existence property and Church’s rule hold true for Constructive ZermeloFraenkel Set Theory, CZF, and also for the theory CZF augmented by the Regular Extension Axiom. As to the proof technique, it features a selfvalidating semantics fo ..."
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This paper proves that the disjunction property, the numerical existence property and Church’s rule hold true for Constructive ZermeloFraenkel Set Theory, CZF, and also for the theory CZF augmented by the Regular Extension Axiom. As to the proof technique, it features a selfvalidating semantics for CZF that combines extensional Kleene realizability and truth. MSC:03F50, 03F35
Metamathematical Properties of Intuitionistic Set Theories with Choice Principles
"... This paper is concerned with metamathematical properties of intuitionistic set theories with choice principles. It is proved that the disjunction property, the numerical existence property, Church’s rule, and several other metamathematical properties hold true for Constructive ZermeloFraenkel Set T ..."
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This paper is concerned with metamathematical properties of intuitionistic set theories with choice principles. It is proved that the disjunction property, the numerical existence property, Church’s rule, and several other metamathematical properties hold true for Constructive ZermeloFraenkel Set Theory and full Intuitionistic ZermeloFraenkel augmented by any combination of the principles of Countable Choice, Dependent Choices and the Presentation Axiom. Also Markov’s principle may be added. Moreover, these properties hold effectively. For instance from a proof of a statement ∀n ∈ ω ∃m ∈ ω ϕ(n, m) one can effectively construct an index e of a recursive function such that ∀n ∈ ω ϕ(n, {e}(n)) is provable. Thus we have an explicit method of witness and program extraction from proofs involving choice principles. As for the proof technique, this paper is a continuation of [32]. [32] introduced a selfvalidating semantics for CZF that combines realizability for extensional set theory and truth.
History of Constructivism in the 20th Century
"... notions, such as `constructive proof', `arbitrary numbertheoretic function ' are rejected. Statements involving quantifiers are finitistically interpreted in terms of quantifierfree statements. Thus an existential statement 9xAx is regarded as a partial communication, to be supplemented by providi ..."
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notions, such as `constructive proof', `arbitrary numbertheoretic function ' are rejected. Statements involving quantifiers are finitistically interpreted in terms of quantifierfree statements. Thus an existential statement 9xAx is regarded as a partial communication, to be supplemented by providing an x which satisfies A. Establishing :8xAx finitistically means: providing a particular x such that Ax is false. In this century, T. Skolem 4 was the first to contribute substantially to finitist 4 Thoralf Skolem 18871963 History of constructivism in the 20th century 3 mathematics; he showed that a fair part of arithmetic could be developed in a calculus without bound variables, and with induction over quantifierfree expressions only. Introduction of functions by primitive recursion is freely allowed (Skolem 1923). Skolem does not present his results in a formal context, nor does he try to delimit precisely the extent of finitist reasoning. Since the idea of finitist reasoning ...
LOCATEDNESS AND OVERT SUBLOCALES
, 2009
"... Abstract. Locatedness is one of the fundamental notions in constructive mathematics. The existence of a positivity predicate on a locale, i.e. the locale being overt, or open, has proved to be fundamental in constructive locale theory. We show that the two notions are intimately connected. Bishop de ..."
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Abstract. Locatedness is one of the fundamental notions in constructive mathematics. The existence of a positivity predicate on a locale, i.e. the locale being overt, or open, has proved to be fundamental in constructive locale theory. We show that the two notions are intimately connected. Bishop defines a metric space to be compact if it is complete and totally bounded. A subset of a totally bounded set is again totally bounded iff it is located. So a closed subset of a Bishop compact set is Bishop compact iff it is located. We translate this result to formal topology. ‘Bishop compact ’ is translated as compact and overt. We propose a definition of located predicate on subspaces in formal topology. We call a sublocale located if it can be presented by a formal topology with a located predicate. We prove that a closed sublocale of a compact regular locale has a located predicate iff it is overt. Moreover, a Bishopclosed subset of a complete metric space is Bishop compact — that is, totally bounded and complete — iff its localic completion is compact overt. Finally, we show by elementary methods that the points of the Vietoris locale of a compact regular locale are precisely its compact overt sublocales. We work constructively, predicatively and avoid the use of the axiom of countable choice. Consequently, all our results are valid in any predicative topos. 1.
MFPS 2009 Continuous Functions on Final Coalgebras
"... In a previous paper we gave a representation of, and simultaneously a way of programming with, continuous functions on streams, whether discretevalued functions, or functions between streams. We also defined a combinator on the representations of such continuous functions that reflects composition. ..."
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In a previous paper we gave a representation of, and simultaneously a way of programming with, continuous functions on streams, whether discretevalued functions, or functions between streams. We also defined a combinator on the representations of such continuous functions that reflects composition. Streams are one of the simplest examples of nontrivial final coalgebras. Here we extend our previous results to cover the case of final coalgebras for a broader class of functors than that giving rise to streams. Among the functors we can deal with are those that arise from countable signatures of finiteplace untyped operators. These have many applications. The topology we put on the final coalgebra for such a functor is that induced by taking for basic neighbourhoods the set of infinite objects which share a common ‘prefix’, a la Baire space. The datatype of prefixes is defined together with the set of ‘growth points ’ in a prefix, simultaneously. This we call beheading. To program and reason about representations of continuous functions requires a language whose type system incorporates the dependent function and pair types, inductive definitions at types Set, I → Set and (Σ I: Set) Set I, coinductive definitions at types Set and I → Set, as well as universal arrows for such definitions. Keywords: Continuous functions, final coalgebras, containers