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27
Notions of Computation and Monads
, 1991
"... The i.calculus is considered a useful mathematical tool in the study of programming languages, since programs can be identified with Iterms. However, if one goes further and uses bnconversion to prove equivalence of programs, then a gross simplification is introduced (programs are identified with ..."
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Cited by 730 (15 self)
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The i.calculus is considered a useful mathematical tool in the study of programming languages, since programs can be identified with Iterms. However, if one goes further and uses bnconversion to prove equivalence of programs, then a gross simplification is introduced (programs are identified with total functions from calues to values) that may jeopardise the applicability of theoretical results, In this paper we introduce calculi. based on a categorical semantics for computations, that provide a correct basis for proving equivalence of programs for a wide range of notions of computation.
A Syntactic Approach to Type Soundness
 Information and Computation
, 1992
"... We present a new approach to proving type soundness for Hindley/Milnerstyle polymorphic type systems. The keys to our approach are (1) an adaptation of subject reduction theorems from combinatory logic to programming languages, and (2) the use of rewriting techniques for the specification of the la ..."
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Cited by 538 (21 self)
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We present a new approach to proving type soundness for Hindley/Milnerstyle polymorphic type systems. The keys to our approach are (1) an adaptation of subject reduction theorems from combinatory logic to programming languages, and (2) the use of rewriting techniques for the specification of the language semantics. The approach easily extends from polymorphic functional languages to imperative languages that provide references, exceptions, continuations, and similar features. We illustrate the technique with a type soundness theorem for the core of Standard ML, which includes the first type soundness proof for polymorphic exceptions and continuations. 1 Type Soundness Static type systems for programming languages attempt to prevent the occurrence of type errors during execution. A definition of type error depends on a specific language and type system, but always includes the use of a function on arguments for which it is not defined, and the attempted application of a nonfunction. ...
The Revised Report on the Syntactic Theories of Sequential Control and State
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 1992
"... The syntactic theories of control and state are conservative extensions of the v calculus for equational reasoning about imperative programming facilities in higherorder languages. Unlike the simple v calculus, the extended theories are mixtures of equivalence relations and compatible congruen ..."
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Cited by 255 (36 self)
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The syntactic theories of control and state are conservative extensions of the v calculus for equational reasoning about imperative programming facilities in higherorder languages. Unlike the simple v calculus, the extended theories are mixtures of equivalence relations and compatible congruence relations on the term language, which significantly complicates the reasoning process. In this paper we develop fully compatible equational theories of the same imperative higherorder programming languages. The new theories subsume the original calculi of control and state and satisfy the usual ChurchRosser and Standardization Theorems. With the new calculi, equational reasoning about imperative programs becomes as simple as reasoning about functional programs. 1 The syntactic theories of control and state Most calculusbased programming languages provide imperative programming facilities such as assignment statements, exceptions, and continuations. Typical examples are ML [16], Schem...
Reasoning about Programs in ContinuationPassing Style
 Lisp and Symbolic Computation
"... Plotkin's v calculus for callbyvalue programs is weaker than the fij calculus for the same programs in continuationpassing style (CPS). To identify the callby value axioms that correspond to fij on CPS terms, we define a new CPS transformation and an inverse mapping, both of which are interes ..."
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Cited by 161 (13 self)
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Plotkin's v calculus for callbyvalue programs is weaker than the fij calculus for the same programs in continuationpassing style (CPS). To identify the callby value axioms that correspond to fij on CPS terms, we define a new CPS transformation and an inverse mapping, both of which are interesting in their own right. Using the new CPS transformation, we determine the precise language of CPS terms closed under fijtransformations, as well as the callbyvalue axioms that correspond to the socalled administrative fijreductions on CPS terms. Using the inverse mapping, we map the remaining fi and j equalities on CPS terms to axioms on callbyvalue terms. On the pure (constant free) set ofterms, the resulting set of axioms is equivalent to Moggi's computational calculus. If the callbyvalue language includes the control operators abort and callwithcurrentcontinuation, the axioms are equivalent to an extension of Felleisen et al.'s vCcalculus and to the equational subtheory of Talcott's logic IOCC. Contents 1 Compiling with and without Continuations 4 2 : Calculi and Semantics 7 3 The Origins and Practice of CPS 10 3.1 The Original Encoding : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 10 3.2 The Universe of CPS Terms : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 11 4 A Compacting CPS Transformation 13
The Type and Effect Discipline
 Information and Computation
, 1992
"... The type and effect discipline is a new framework for reconstructing the principal type and the minimal effect of expressions in implicitly typed polymorphic functional languages that support imperative constructs. The type and effect discipline outperforms other polymorphic type systems. Just as ty ..."
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Cited by 152 (3 self)
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The type and effect discipline is a new framework for reconstructing the principal type and the minimal effect of expressions in implicitly typed polymorphic functional languages that support imperative constructs. The type and effect discipline outperforms other polymorphic type systems. Just as types abstract collections of concrete values, effects denote imperative operations on regions. Regions abstract sets of possibly aliased memory locations. Effects are used to control type generalization in the presence of imperative constructs while regions delimit observable sideeffects. The observable effects of an expression range over the regions that are free in its type environment and its type; effects related to local data structures can be discarded during type reconstruction. The type of an expression can be generalized with respect to the variables that are not free in the type environment or in the observable effect. 1 Introduction Type inference [12] is the process that automa...
On the Expressive Power of Programming Languages
 Science of Computer Programming
, 1990
"... The literature on programming languages contains an abundance of informal claims on the relative expressive power of programming languages, but there is no framework for formalizing such statements nor for deriving interesting consequences. As a first step in this direction, we develop a formal noti ..."
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Cited by 132 (4 self)
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The literature on programming languages contains an abundance of informal claims on the relative expressive power of programming languages, but there is no framework for formalizing such statements nor for deriving interesting consequences. As a first step in this direction, we develop a formal notion of expressiveness and investigate its properties. To validate the theory, we analyze some widely held beliefs about the expressive power of several extensions of functional languages. Based on these results, we believe that our system correctly captures many of the informal ideas on expressiveness, and that it constitutes a foundation for further research in this direction. 1 Comparing Programming Languages The literature on programming languages contains an abundance of informal claims on the expressive power of programming languages. Arguments in these contexts typically assert the expressibility or nonexpressibility of programming constructs relative to a language. Unfortunately, pro...
A Variable Typed Logic of Effects
 Information and Computation
, 1993
"... In this paper we introduce a variable typed logic of effects inspired by the variable type systems of Feferman for purely functional languages. VTLoE (Variable Typed Logic of Effects) is introduced in two stages. The first stage is the firstorder theory of individuals built on assertions of equalit ..."
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Cited by 48 (12 self)
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In this paper we introduce a variable typed logic of effects inspired by the variable type systems of Feferman for purely functional languages. VTLoE (Variable Typed Logic of Effects) is introduced in two stages. The first stage is the firstorder theory of individuals built on assertions of equality (operational equivalence `a la Plotkin), and contextual assertions. The second stage extends the logic to include classes and class membership. The logic we present provides an expressive language for defining and studying properties of programs including program equivalences, in a uniform framework. The logic combines the features and benefits of equational calculi as well as program and specification logics. In addition to the usual firstorder formula constructions, we add contextual assertions. Contextual assertions generalize Hoare's triples in that they can be nested, used as assumptions, and their free variables may be quantified. They are similar in spirit to program modalities in ...
Categorical Models for Local Names
 LISP AND SYMBOLIC COMPUTATION
, 1996
"... This paper describes the construction of categorical models for the nucalculus, a language that combines higherorder functions with dynamically created names. Names are created with local scope, they can be compared with each other and passed around through function application, but that is all. T ..."
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Cited by 39 (2 self)
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This paper describes the construction of categorical models for the nucalculus, a language that combines higherorder functions with dynamically created names. Names are created with local scope, they can be compared with each other and passed around through function application, but that is all. The intent behind this language is to examine one aspect of the imperative character of Standard ML: the use of local state by dynamic creation of references. The nucalculus is equivalent to a certain fragment of ML, omitting side effects, exceptions, datatypes and recursion. Even without all these features, the interaction of name creation with higherorder functions can be complex and subtle; it is particularly difficult to characterise the observable behaviour of expressions. Categorical monads, in the style of Moggi, are used to build denotational models for the nucalculus. An intermediate stage is the use of a computational metalanguage, which distinguishes in the type system between values and computations. The general requirements for a categorical model are presented, and two specific examples described in detail. These provide a sound denotational semantics for the nucalculus, and can be used to reason about observable equivalence in the language. In particular a model using logical relations is fully abstract for firstorder expressions.
Compilation and Equivalence of Imperative Objects
, 1998
"... We adopt the untyped imperative object calculus of Abadi and Cardelli as a minimal setting in which to study problems of compilation and program equivalence that arise when compiling objectoriented languages. We present both a bigstep and a smallstep substitutionbased operational semantics fo ..."
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Cited by 34 (4 self)
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We adopt the untyped imperative object calculus of Abadi and Cardelli as a minimal setting in which to study problems of compilation and program equivalence that arise when compiling objectoriented languages. We present both a bigstep and a smallstep substitutionbased operational semantics for the calculus. Our rst two results are theorems asserting the equivalence of our substitutionbased semantics with a closurebased semantics like that given by Abadi and Cardelli. Our third result is a direct proof of the correctness of compilation to a stackbased abstract machine via a smallstep decompilation algorithm. Our fourth result is that contextual equivalence of objects coincides with a form of Mason and Talcott's CIU equivalence; the latter provides a tractable means of establishing operational equivalences. Finally, we prove correct an algorithm, used in our prototype compiler, for statically resolving method osets. This is the rst study of correctness of an objectoriented abstract machine, and of operational equivalence for the imperative object calculus.
A Syntactic Theory of Dynamic Binding
 HigherOrder and Symbolic Computation
, 1997
"... . Dynamic binding, which has always been associated with Lisp, is still semantically obscure to many. Although largely replaced by lexical scoping, not only does dynamic binding remain an interesting and expressive programming technique in specialised circumstances, but also it is a key notion in se ..."
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Cited by 32 (1 self)
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. Dynamic binding, which has always been associated with Lisp, is still semantically obscure to many. Although largely replaced by lexical scoping, not only does dynamic binding remain an interesting and expressive programming technique in specialised circumstances, but also it is a key notion in semantics. This paper presents a syntactic theory that enables the programmer to perform equational reasoning on programs using dynamic binding. The theory is proved to be sound and complete with respect to derivations allowed on programs in "dynamicenvironment passing style". From this theory, we derive a sequential evaluation function in a contextrewriting system. Then, we exhibit the power and usefulness of dynamic binding in two different ways. First, we prove that dynamic binding adds expressiveness to a purely functional language. Second, we show that dynamic binding is an essential notion in semantics that can be used to define the semantics of exceptions. Afterwards, we further refin...