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Reverse Mathematics: The Playground of Logic
, 2010
"... The general enterprise of calibrating the strength of classical mathematical theorems in terms of the axioms (typically of set existence) needed to prove them was begun by Harvey Friedman in [1971] (see also [1967]). His goals were both philosophical and foundational. What existence assumptions are ..."
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The general enterprise of calibrating the strength of classical mathematical theorems in terms of the axioms (typically of set existence) needed to prove them was begun by Harvey Friedman in [1971] (see also [1967]). His goals were both philosophical and foundational. What existence assumptions are really needed to develop classical mathematics
THE LIMITS OF DETERMINACY IN SECOND ORDER ARITHMETIC
, 2010
"... We establish the precise bounds for the amount of determinacy provable in second order arithmetic. We show that for every natural number n, second order arithmetic can prove that determinacy holds for Boolean combinations of n many Π 0 3 classes, but it cannot prove that all finite Boolean combina ..."
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We establish the precise bounds for the amount of determinacy provable in second order arithmetic. We show that for every natural number n, second order arithmetic can prove that determinacy holds for Boolean combinations of n many Π 0 3 classes, but it cannot prove that all finite Boolean combinations of Π 0 3 classes are determined. More specifically, we prove that Π 1 n+2CA 0 ⊢ nΠ 0 3DET, but that ∆ 1 n+2CA � nΠ 0 3DET, where nΠ 0 3 is the nth level in the difference hierarchy of Π 0 3 classes. We also show some conservativity results that imply that reversals for the theorems above are not possible. We prove that for every true Σ 1 4 sentence T (as for instance nΠ 0 3DET) and
Reverse mathematics, countable and uncountable: a computational approach
, 2009
"... Reverse mathematics analyzes the complexity of mathematical statements in terms of the strength of axiomatic systems needed to prove them. Its setting is countable mathematics and subsystems of second order arithmetic. We present a similar analysis based on (recursion theoretic) computational comple ..."
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Reverse mathematics analyzes the complexity of mathematical statements in terms of the strength of axiomatic systems needed to prove them. Its setting is countable mathematics and subsystems of second order arithmetic. We present a similar analysis based on (recursion theoretic) computational complexity instead. In the countable case, this view is implicit in many of results in the area. By making it explicit and precise, we provide an alternate approach to this type of analysis for countable mathematics. It may be more intelligible to some mathematicians in that it replaces logic and proof systems with relative computability. In the uncountable case, second order arithmetic and its proof theory is insufficient for the desired analysis. Our computational approach, however, supplies a ready made paradigm for similar analyses. It can be implemented with any appropriate notion of computation on uncountable sets.
What Is Logic?
"... It is far from clear what is meant by logic or what should be meant by it. It is nevertheless reasonable to identify logic as the study of inferences and inferential relations. The obvious practical use of logic is in any case to help us to reason well, to draw good inferences. And the typical form ..."
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It is far from clear what is meant by logic or what should be meant by it. It is nevertheless reasonable to identify logic as the study of inferences and inferential relations. The obvious practical use of logic is in any case to help us to reason well, to draw good inferences. And the typical form the theory of any part of logic seems to be a set of rules of inference. This answer already introduces some structure into a discussion of the nature of logic, for in an inference we can distinguish the input called a premise or premises from the output known as the conclusion. The transition from a premise or a number of premises to the conclusion is governed by a rule of inference. If the inference is in accordance with the appropriate rule, it is called valid. Rules of inference are often thought of as the alpha and omega of logic. Conceiving of logic as the study of inference is nevertheless only the first approximation to the title question, in that it prompts more questions than it answers. It is not clear what counts as an inference or what a theory of such inferences might look like. What are the rules of inference based on? Where do we find them? The ultimate end
Why sets?
 PILLARS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE: ESSAYS DEDICATED TO BORIS (BOAZ) TRAKHTENBROT ON THE OCCASION OF HIS 85TH BIRTHDAY, VOLUME 4800 OF LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 2008
"... Sets play a key role in foundations of mathematics. Why? To what extent is it an accident of history? Imagine that you have a chance to talk to mathematicians from a faraway planet. Would their mathematics be setbased? What are the alternatives to the settheoretic foundation of mathematics? Besi ..."
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Sets play a key role in foundations of mathematics. Why? To what extent is it an accident of history? Imagine that you have a chance to talk to mathematicians from a faraway planet. Would their mathematics be setbased? What are the alternatives to the settheoretic foundation of mathematics? Besides, set theory seems to play a significant role in computer science; is there a good justification for that? We discuss these and some related issues.
The extent of constructive game labellings
 Journal of Logic and Computation
"... Abstract. We develop a theory of labellings for infinite trees, define the notion of a combinatorial labelling, and show that ∆ 0 2 is the largest boldface pointclass in which every set admits a combinatorial labelling. 1 ..."
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Abstract. We develop a theory of labellings for infinite trees, define the notion of a combinatorial labelling, and show that ∆ 0 2 is the largest boldface pointclass in which every set admits a combinatorial labelling. 1
Probability measures and effective randomness
, 2007
"... Abstract. We study the question, “For which reals x does there exist a measure µ such that x is random relative to µ? ” We show that for every nonrecursive x, there is a measure which makes x random without concentrating on x. We give several conditions on x equivalent to there being continuous meas ..."
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Abstract. We study the question, “For which reals x does there exist a measure µ such that x is random relative to µ? ” We show that for every nonrecursive x, there is a measure which makes x random without concentrating on x. We give several conditions on x equivalent to there being continuous measure which makes x random. We show that for all but countably many reals x these conditions apply, so there is a continuous measure which makes x random. There is a metamathematical aspect of this investigation. As one requires higher arithmetic levels in the degree of randomness, one must make use of more iterates of the power set of the continuum to show that for all but countably many x’s there is a continuous µ which makes x random to that degree. 1.
INDUCTION, BOUNDING, WEAK COMBINATORIAL PRINCIPLES, AND THE HOMOGENEOUS MODEL THEOREM
, 2014
"... Goncharov and Peretyat’kin independently gave necessary and sufficient conditions for when a set of types of a complete theory T is the type spectrum of some homogeneous model of T. Their result can be stated as a principle of second order arithmetic, which we call the Homogeneous Model Theorem (HM ..."
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Goncharov and Peretyat’kin independently gave necessary and sufficient conditions for when a set of types of a complete theory T is the type spectrum of some homogeneous model of T. Their result can be stated as a principle of second order arithmetic, which we call the Homogeneous Model Theorem (HMT), and analyzed from the points of view of computability theory and reverse mathematics. Previous computability theoretic results by Lange suggested a close connection between HMT and the Atomic Model Theorem (AMT), which states that every complete atomic theory has an atomic model. We show that HMT and AMT are indeed equivalent in the sense of reverse mathematics, as well as in a strong computability theoretic sense. We do the same for an analogous result of Peretyat’kin giving necessary and sufficient conditions for when a set of types is the type spectrum of some model.