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177
Opportunistic Beamforming Using Dumb Antennas
 IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
, 2002
"... Multiuser diversity is a form of diversity inherent in a wireless network, provided by independent timevarying channels across the different users. The diversity benefit is exploited by tracking the channel fluctuations of the users and scheduling transmissions to users when their instantaneous cha ..."
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Cited by 737 (1 self)
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Multiuser diversity is a form of diversity inherent in a wireless network, provided by independent timevarying channels across the different users. The diversity benefit is exploited by tracking the channel fluctuations of the users and scheduling transmissions to users when their instantaneous channel quality is near the peak. The diversity gain increases with the dynamic range of the fluctuations and is thus limited in environments with little scattering and/or slow fading. In such environments, we propose the use of multiple transmit antennas to induce large and fast channel fluctuations so that multiuser diversity can still be exploited. The scheme can be interpreted as opportunistic beamforming and we show that true beamforming gains can be achieved when there are sufficient users, even though very limited channel feedback is needed. Furthermore, in a cellular system, the scheme plays an additional role of opportunistic nulling of the interference created on users of adjacent cells. We discuss the design implications of implementing this scheme in a complete wireless system.
Optimality of myopic sensing in multichannel opportunistic access
 in Proc. ICC
, 2008
"... Abstract—We consider a multichannel opportunistic communication system where the states of these channels evolve as independent and statistically identical Markov chains (the GilbertElliot channel model). A user chooses one channel to sense and access in each slot and collects a reward determined ..."
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Cited by 105 (43 self)
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Abstract—We consider a multichannel opportunistic communication system where the states of these channels evolve as independent and statistically identical Markov chains (the GilbertElliot channel model). A user chooses one channel to sense and access in each slot and collects a reward determined by the state of the chosen channel. The problem is to design a sensing policy for channel selection to maximize the average reward, which can be formulated as a multiarm restless bandit process. In this paper, we study the structure, optimality, and performance of the myopic sensing policy. We show that the myopic sensing policy has a simple robust structure that reduces channel selection to a roundrobin procedure and obviates the need for knowing the channel transition probabilities. The optimality of this simple policy is established for the twochannel case and conjectured for the general case based on numerical results. The performance of the myopic sensing policy is analyzed, which, based on the optimality of myopic sensing, characterizes the maximum throughput of a multichannel opportunistic communication system and its scaling behavior with respect to the number of channels. These results apply to cognitive radio networks, opportunistic transmission in fading environments, downlink scheduling in centralized networks, and resourceconstrained jamming and antijamming. Index Terms—Opportunistic access, cognitive radio, multichannel MAC, multiarm restless bandit process, myopic policy.
Optimal channel probing and transmission scheduling for opportunistic spectrum access
 in Proc. 13th ACM MobiCom
, 2007
"... Abstract—In this study, we consider optimal opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) policies for a transmitter in a multichannel wireless system, where a channel can be in one of multiple states. In such systems, the transmitter typically does not have complete information on the channel states, but can ..."
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Cited by 87 (6 self)
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Abstract—In this study, we consider optimal opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) policies for a transmitter in a multichannel wireless system, where a channel can be in one of multiple states. In such systems, the transmitter typically does not have complete information on the channel states, but can learn by probing individual channels at the expense of certain resources, e.g., energy and time. The main goal is to derive optimal strategies for determining which channels to probe, in what sequence, and which channel to use for transmission. We consider two problems within this context and show that they are equivalent to different data maximization and throughput maximization problems. For both problems, we derive key structural properties of the corresponding optimal strategy. In particular, we show that it has a threshold structure and can be described by an index policy. We further show that the optimal strategy for the first problem can only take one of three structural forms. Using these results, we first present a dynamic program that computes the optimal strategy within a finite number of steps, even when the state space is uncountably infinite. We then present and examine a more efficient, but suboptimal, twostep lookahead strategy for each problem. These strategies are shown to be optimal for a number of cases of practical interest. We examine their performance via numerical studies. Index Terms—Channel probing, cognitive radio, dynamic programming, opportunistic spectrum access (OSA), optimal stopping, scheduling, stochastic optimization. I.
The transport capacity of wireless networks over fading channels
, 2005
"... We consider networks consisting of nodes with radios, and without any wired infrastructure, thus necessitating all communication to take place only over the shared wireless medium. The main focus of this paper is on the effect of fading in such wireless networks. We examine the attenuation regime ..."
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Cited by 83 (4 self)
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We consider networks consisting of nodes with radios, and without any wired infrastructure, thus necessitating all communication to take place only over the shared wireless medium. The main focus of this paper is on the effect of fading in such wireless networks. We examine the attenuation regime where either the medium is absorptive, a situation which generally prevails, or the path loss exponent is greater than 3. We study the transport capacity, defined as the supremum over the set of feasible rate vectors of the distance weighted sum of rates. We consider two assumption sets. Under the first assumption set, which essentially requires only a mild time average type of bound on the fading process, we show that the transport capacity can grow no faster than (), where denotes the number of nodes, even when the channel state information (CSI) is available noncausally at both the transmitters and the receivers. This assumption includes common models of stationary ergodic channels; constant, frequencyselective channels; flat, rapidly varying channels; and flat slowly varying channels. In the second assumption set, which essentially features an independence, time average of expectation, and nonzeroness condition on the fading process, we constructively show how to achieve transport capacity of ( ) even when the CSI is unknown to both the transmitters and the receivers, provided that every node has an appropriately nearby node. This assumption set includes common models of independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) channels; constant, flat channels; and constant, frequencyselective channels. The transport capacity is achieved by nodes communicating only with neighbors, and using only pointtopoint coding. The thrust of these results is that the multihop strategy, toward which much protocol development activity is currently targeted, is appropriate for fading environments. The low attenuation regime is open.
Asymptotically Optimal WaterFilling in Vector MultipleAccess Channels
 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory
, 2001
"... Dynamic resource allocation is an important means to increase the sum capacity of fading multipleaccess channels (MACs). In this paper, we consider vector multiaccess channels (channels where each user has multiple degrees of freedom) and study the effect of power allocation as a function of the ch ..."
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Cited by 76 (4 self)
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Dynamic resource allocation is an important means to increase the sum capacity of fading multipleaccess channels (MACs). In this paper, we consider vector multiaccess channels (channels where each user has multiple degrees of freedom) and study the effect of power allocation as a function of the channel state on the sum capacity (or spectral efficiency) defined as the maximum sum of rates of users per unit degree of freedom at which the users can jointly transmit reliably, in an information theoretic sense, assuming random directions of received signal. Directsequence codedivision multipleaccess (DSCDMA) channels and MACs with multiple antennas at the receiver are two systems that fall under the purview of our model. Our main result is the identification of a simple dynamic powerallocation scheme that is optimal in a large system, i.e., with a large number of users and a correspondingly large number of degrees of freedom. A key feature of this policy is that, for any user, it depends on the instantaneous amplitude of channel state of that user alone and the structure of the policy is "waterfilling." In the context of DSCDMA and in the special case of no fading, the asymptotically optimal power policy of waterfilling simplifies to constant power allocation over all realizations of signature sequences; this result verifies the conjecture made in [28]. We study the behavior of the asymptotically optimal waterfilling policy in various regimes of number of users per unit degree of freedom and signaltonoise ratio (SNR). We also generalize this result to multiple classes, i.e., the situation when users in different classes have different average power constraints.
Exploiting Decentralized Channel State Information for Random Access
, 2002
"... We study the use of channel state information for random access in fading channels. Traditionally, random access protocols have been designed by assuming simple models for the physical layer where all users are symmetric and there is no notion of channel state. We introduce a reception model that ta ..."
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Cited by 75 (18 self)
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We study the use of channel state information for random access in fading channels. Traditionally, random access protocols have been designed by assuming simple models for the physical layer where all users are symmetric and there is no notion of channel state. We introduce a reception model that takes into account the channel states of various users. Under the assumption that each user has access to his channel state information (CSI), we propose a variant of Slotted ALOHA protocol for medium access control, where the transmission probability is allowed to be a function of the CSL The function is called the transmission control scheme. Assuming the finite user infinite buffer model we derive expressions for the maximum stable throughput of the system. We introduce the notion of asymptotic stable throughput (AST) that is the maximum stable throughput as the number of users goes to infinity. We consider two types of transmission control namely population independent transmission control (PITC) where the transmission control is not a function of the size of the network and population dependent transmission control where the transmission control is a function of the size of the network. We obtain expressions for the AST achievable with PITC. For population dependent transmission control, we introduce a particular transmission control that can potentially lead to significant gains in AST. For both PITC and PDTC, we show that the effect of transmission control is equivalent to changing the probability distribution of the channel state. The theory is then applied to CDMA networks with Linear Minimum Mean Square Error (LMMSE) receivers and Matched Filters (MF) to illustrate the effectiveness of utilizing channel state. It is shown that through the use of channel state, with an...
Multiuser Diversity For Mimo Wireless Systems With Linear Receivers
, 2001
"... MIMO communication links, i.e. those with multiple transmit and receive antennas, offer significant advantages in terms of rate and reliability. In cellular systems, however, gains may be limited due to fading and interference. One potential solution is known as multiuser diveristy, in which a packe ..."
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Cited by 73 (3 self)
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MIMO communication links, i.e. those with multiple transmit and receive antennas, offer significant advantages in terms of rate and reliability. In cellular systems, however, gains may be limited due to fading and interference. One potential solution is known as multiuser diveristy, in which a packet scheduler improves throughput by exploiting the independence of the fading and interference statistics of different users. In this paper, we consider the problem of exploiting multiuser diversity in M1MO systems, especially those with zeroforcing linear receivers. We propose a number of different scheduling disciplines and compare them in terms of average throughput as a function of the number of users and number of antennas.
QoS Aware Adaptive Resource Allocation Techniques for Fair Scheduling in OFDMA Based Broadband Wireless Access Systems
, 2003
"... A system based on orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) has been developed to deliver mobile broadband data service at data rates comparable to those of wired services, such as DSL and cable modems. We consider the resource allocation problem of assigning a set of subcarriers and det ..."
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Cited by 56 (1 self)
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A system based on orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) has been developed to deliver mobile broadband data service at data rates comparable to those of wired services, such as DSL and cable modems. We consider the resource allocation problem of assigning a set of subcarriers and determining the number of bits to be transmitted for each subcarrier in OFDMA systems. We compare simplicity, fairness and efficiency of our algorithm with the optimal and proposed suboptimal algorithms for varying values of delay spread, number of users and total power constraint. The results show that performance of our approach is appealing and can be close to optimal.
Distributed opportunistic scheduling for ad hoc communications with imperfect channel information,” Submitted to
 V. CONCLUSION In
"... Abstract — Distributed opportunistic scheduling is studied for wireless adhoc networks, where many links contend for one channel using random access. In such networks, distributed opportunistic scheduling (DOS) involves a process of joint channel probing and distributed scheduling. It has been show ..."
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Cited by 44 (9 self)
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Abstract — Distributed opportunistic scheduling is studied for wireless adhoc networks, where many links contend for one channel using random access. In such networks, distributed opportunistic scheduling (DOS) involves a process of joint channel probing and distributed scheduling. It has been shown that under perfect channel estimation, the optimal DOS for maximizing the network throughput is a pure threshold policy. In this paper, this formalism is generalized to explore DOS under noisy channel estimation, where the transmission rate needs to be backed off from the estimated rate to reduce the outage. It is shown that the optimal scheduling policy remains to be thresholdbased, and that the rate threshold turns out to be a function of the variance of the estimation error and be a functional of the backoff rate function. Since the optimal backoff rate is intractable, a suboptimal linear backoff scheme that backs off the estimated signaltonoise ratio (SNR) and hence the rate is proposed. The corresponding optimal backoff ratio and rate threshold can be obtained via an iterative algorithm. Finally, simulation results are provided to illustrate the tradeoff caused by increasing training time to improve channel estimation at the cost of probing efficiency. I.