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50
Mobileassisted localization in wireless sensor networks
 In Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM ’05
, 2005
"... Abstract — The localization problem is to determine an assignment of coordinates to nodes in a wireless adhoc or sensor network that is consistent with measured pairwise node distances. Most previously proposed solutions to this problem assume that the nodes can obtain pairwise distances to other n ..."
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Cited by 49 (2 self)
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Abstract — The localization problem is to determine an assignment of coordinates to nodes in a wireless adhoc or sensor network that is consistent with measured pairwise node distances. Most previously proposed solutions to this problem assume that the nodes can obtain pairwise distances to other nearby nodes using some ranging technology. However, for a variety of reasons that include obstructions and lack of reliable omnidirectional ranging, this distance information is hard to obtain in practice. Even when pairwise distances between nearby nodes are known, there may not be enough information to solve the problem uniquely. This paper describes MAL, a mobileassisted localization method which employs a mobile user to assist in measuring distances between node pairs until these distance constraints form a “globally rigid ” structure that guarantees a unique localization. We derive the required constraints on the mobile’s movement and the minimum number of measurements it must collect; these constraints depend on the number of nodes visible to the mobile in a given region. We show how to guide the mobile’s movement to gather a sufficient number of distance samples for node localization. We use simulations and measurements from an indoor deployment using the Cricket location system to investigate the performance of MAL, finding in realworld experiments that MAL’s median pairwise distance error is less than 1.5 % of the true node distance. I.
Unit Disk Graph Approximation
 In Workshop on Discrete Algorithms and Methods for Mobile Computing and Communications (DIALM
, 2004
"... Finding a good embedding of a unit disk graph given by its connectivity information is a problem of practical importance in a variety of fields. In wireless ad hoc and sensor networks, such an embedding can be used to obtain virtual coordinates. In this paper, we prove a nonapproximability result f ..."
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Cited by 49 (9 self)
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Finding a good embedding of a unit disk graph given by its connectivity information is a problem of practical importance in a variety of fields. In wireless ad hoc and sensor networks, such an embedding can be used to obtain virtual coordinates. In this paper, we prove a nonapproximability result for the problem of embedding a given unit disk graph. Particularly, we show that if nonneighboring nodes are not allowed to be closer to each other than distance 1, then two neighbors can be as far apart as #, where # goes to 0 as n goes to infinity, unless P = NP . We further show that finding a realization of a dquasi unit disk graph with 1/ # 2 is NP hard.
Distributed Localization Using Noisy Distance and Angle Information
 MOBIHOC'06
, 2006
"... Localization is an important and extensively studied problem in adhoc wireless sensor networks. Given the connectivity graph of the sensor nodes, along with additional local information (e.g. distances, angles, orientations etc.), the goal is to reconstruct the global geometry of the network. In th ..."
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Cited by 16 (4 self)
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Localization is an important and extensively studied problem in adhoc wireless sensor networks. Given the connectivity graph of the sensor nodes, along with additional local information (e.g. distances, angles, orientations etc.), the goal is to reconstruct the global geometry of the network. In this paper, we study the problem of localization with noisy distance and angle information. With no noise at all, the localization problem with both angle (with orientation) and distance information is trivial. However, in the presence of even a small amount of noise, we prove that the localization problem is NPhard. Localization with accurate distance information and relative angle information is also hard. These hardness results motivate our study of approximation schemes. We relax the nonconvex constraints to approximating convex constraints and propose linear programs (LP) for two formulations of the resulting localization problem, which we call the weak deployment and strong deployment problems. These two formulations give upper and lower bounds on the location uncertainty respectively: No sensor is located outside its weak deployment region, and each sensor can be anywhere in its strong deployment region without violating the approximate distance and angle constraints. Though LPbased algorithms are usually solved by centralized methods, we propose distributed, iterative methods, which are provably convergent to the centralized algorithm solutions. We give simulation results for the distributed algorithms, evaluating the convergence rate, dependence on measurement noises, and robustness to link dynamics.
Guaranteeddelivery geographic routing under uncertain node locations
 In: Proceedings of the 26th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM’07) (2007) K.M. Lillis, S.V. Pemmaraju, and I.A. Pirwani
, 2007
"... rely on exact location information at the nodes, because when the greedy routing phase gets stuck at a local minimum, they require, as a fallback, a planar subgraph whose identification, in all existing methods, depends on exact node positions. In practice, however, location information at the netwo ..."
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Cited by 14 (0 self)
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rely on exact location information at the nodes, because when the greedy routing phase gets stuck at a local minimum, they require, as a fallback, a planar subgraph whose identification, in all existing methods, depends on exact node positions. In practice, however, location information at the network nodes is hardly precise; be it because the employed location hardware, such as GPS, exhibits an inherent measurement imprecision, or because the localization protocols which estimate positions of the network nodes cannot do so without errors. In this paper we propose a novel naming and routing scheme that can handle the uncertainty in location information. It is based on a macroscopic variant of geographic greedy routing, as well as a macroscopic planarization of the communication graph. If an upper bound on the deviation from true node locations is available, our routing protocol guarantees delivery of messages. Due to its macroscopic view, our routing scheme also produces shorter and more loadbalanced paths than common geographic routing schemes, in particular in sparsely connected networks or in the presence of obstacles. I.
An algorithmic approach to geographic routing in ad hoc and sensor networks
 IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw
"... Abstract—The one type of routing in ad hoc and sensor networks that currently appears to be most amenable to algorithmic analysis is geographic routing. This paper contains an introduction to the problem field of geographic routing, presents a specific routing algorithm based on a synthesis of the g ..."
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Cited by 11 (0 self)
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Abstract—The one type of routing in ad hoc and sensor networks that currently appears to be most amenable to algorithmic analysis is geographic routing. This paper contains an introduction to the problem field of geographic routing, presents a specific routing algorithm based on a synthesis of the greedy forwarding and face routing approaches, and provides an algorithmic analysis of the presented algorithm from both a worstcase and an averagecase perspective. Index Terms—Algorithmic analysis, routing, stretch, wireless networks.
Optimized stateless broadcasting in wireless multihop networks
 In INFOCOM
, 2006
"... Abstract — In this paper we present a simple and stateless ..."
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Cited by 11 (2 self)
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Abstract — In this paper we present a simple and stateless
Distributed Mobility Management for Target Tracking in Mobile Sensor Networks
"... Abstract—Mobility management is a major challenge in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) due in part to the dynamically changing network topologies. For mobile sensor networks that are deployed for surveillance applications, it is important to use a mobility management scheme that can empower nodes to m ..."
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Cited by 11 (0 self)
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Abstract—Mobility management is a major challenge in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) due in part to the dynamically changing network topologies. For mobile sensor networks that are deployed for surveillance applications, it is important to use a mobility management scheme that can empower nodes to make better decisions regarding their positions such that strategic tasks such as target tracking can benefit from node movement. In this paper, we describe a distributed mobility management scheme for mobile sensor networks. The proposed scheme considers node movement decisions as part of a distributed optimization problem which integrates mobilityenhanced improvement in the quality of target tracking data with the associated negative consequences of increased energy consumption due to locomotion, potential loss of network connectivity, and loss of sensing coverage. Index Terms—Wireless mobile sensor networks, mobility management, target tracking, Bayesian, distributed system. 1
Aligned virtual coordinates for greedy routing in WSNs
 Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Mobile Adhoc and Sensor Systems
, 2006
"... Abstract — Geographic routing provides relatively good performance at a much lower overhead than conventional routing protocols such as AODV. However, the performance of these protocols is impacted by physical voids, and localization errors. Accordingly, virtual coordinate systems (VCS) were propose ..."
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Cited by 10 (0 self)
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Abstract — Geographic routing provides relatively good performance at a much lower overhead than conventional routing protocols such as AODV. However, the performance of these protocols is impacted by physical voids, and localization errors. Accordingly, virtual coordinate systems (VCS) were proposed as an alternative approach that is resilient to localization errors and that naturally routes around physical voids. However, we show that VCS is vulnerable to different forms of the void problem and the performance of greedy routing on VCS is worse than that of geographic forwarding. We show that these anomalies are due to the integral nature of VCS, which causes quantization noise in the estimate of connectivity and node location. We propose an aligned virtual coordinate system (AVCS) on which the greedy routing success can be significantly improved. With our approach, and for the first time, we show that greedy routing on VCS outperforms that on physical coordinate systems even in the absence of localization errors. We compare AVCS against some of the most popular geographical routing protocols both on physical coordinate system and the virtual coordinate systems and show that AVCS significantly improves performance over the best known solutions. I.
Good quality virtual realization of unit ball graphs
 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2007
"... The quality of an embedding Φ: V ↦ → R 2 of a graph G = (V, E) into the Euclidean plane is the ratio of max{u,v}∈E Φ(u) − Φ(v)2 to min{u,v}�∈E Φ(u) − Φ(v)2. Given a graph G = (V, E), that is known to be a unit ball graph in fixed dimensional Euclidean space R d, we seek algorithms to compu ..."
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Cited by 9 (2 self)
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The quality of an embedding Φ: V ↦ → R 2 of a graph G = (V, E) into the Euclidean plane is the ratio of max{u,v}∈E Φ(u) − Φ(v)2 to min{u,v}�∈E Φ(u) − Φ(v)2. Given a graph G = (V, E), that is known to be a unit ball graph in fixed dimensional Euclidean space R d, we seek algorithms to compute an embedding Φ: V ↦ → R 2 of best (smallest) quality. Note that G comes with no associated geometric information and in this setting, related problems such as recognizing if G is a unit disk graph (UDG), are NPhard. While any connected unit disk graph (UDG) has a 2dimensional embedding with quality between 1/2 and 1, as far as we know, Vempala’s random projection approach (FOCS 1998) provides the best quality bound of O(log 3 n · √ log log n) for this problem. This paper presents a simple, combinatorial algorithm for computing a O(log 2.5 n)quality 2dimensional embedding of a given graph, that is known to be a UBG in fixed dimensional Euclidean space R d. If the embedding is allowed to reside in higher dimensional space, we obtain improved results: a quality2 embedding in R O(d log d). The first step of our algorithm constructs a “growthrestricted approximation ” of the given UBG. While such a construction is trivial if the UBG comes with a geometric representation, we are not aware of any other algorithm that can perform this step without geometric information. Construction of a growthrestricted approximation permits us to bypass the standard and costly technique of solving a linear program with exponentially many “spreading constraints. ” As a side effect of our construction, we get a constantfactor approximation to the minimum clique cover problem for UBGs, described without geometry. The second step of our algorithm combines the probabilistic decomposition of growthrestricted graphs due to Lee and Krauthgamer (STOC 2003) with Rao’s embedding algorithm for planar graphs (SoCG 1999) to obtain a (k, O ( √ log n))volume respecting embedding of growthrestricted graphs. Our problem is a version of the well known localization problem in wireless sensor networks, in which network nodes are required to compute virtual 2dimensional Euclidean coordinates given little or (as in our case) no geometric information.
Sensor networks continue to puzzle: Selected open problems
 In Proc. 9th Internat. Conf. Distributed Computing and Networking (ICDCN
, 2008
"... Abstract. While several important problems in the field of sensor networks have already been tackled, there is still a wide range of challenging, open problems that merit further attention. We present five theoretical problems that we believe to be essential to understanding sensor networks. The goa ..."
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Cited by 9 (0 self)
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Abstract. While several important problems in the field of sensor networks have already been tackled, there is still a wide range of challenging, open problems that merit further attention. We present five theoretical problems that we believe to be essential to understanding sensor networks. The goal of this work is both to summarize the current state of research and, by calling attention to these fundamental problems, to spark interest in the networking community to attend to these and related problems in sensor networks.