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29
StateBased Model Checking of EventDriven System Requirements
 IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
, 1993
"... AbstractIn this paper, we demonstrate how model checking can be used to verify safety properties for eventdriven systems. SCR tabular requirements describe required system behavior in a format that is intuitive, easy to read, and scalable to large systems (e.g., the software requhements for the A7 ..."
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Cited by 144 (8 self)
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AbstractIn this paper, we demonstrate how model checking can be used to verify safety properties for eventdriven systems. SCR tabular requirements describe required system behavior in a format that is intuitive, easy to read, and scalable to large systems (e.g., the software requhements for the A7 aircraft). Model checking of temporal logics has been established as a sound technique for verifying properties of hardware systems. We have developed an automated technique for formalizing the semiformal SCR requirements and for transforming the resultant formal specification onto a finite structure that a model checker can analyze. This technique was effective in uncovering violations of system invariants in both an automobile cruise control system and a waterlevel monitoring system. Index TermsFormal specification, formal verification, model checking, requirements analysis, sonware requirements, temporal logic.
Automated Deduction by Theory Resolution
 Journal of Automated Reasoning
, 1985
"... Theory resolution constitutes a set of complete procedures for incorporating theories into a resolution theoremproving program, thereby making it unnecessary to resolve directly upon axioms of the theory. This can greatly reduce the length of proofs and the size of the search space. Theory resoluti ..."
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Cited by 131 (1 self)
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Theory resolution constitutes a set of complete procedures for incorporating theories into a resolution theoremproving program, thereby making it unnecessary to resolve directly upon axioms of the theory. This can greatly reduce the length of proofs and the size of the search space. Theory resolution effects a beneficial division of labor, improving the performance of the theorem prover and increasing the applicability of the specialized reasoning procedures. Total theory resolution utilizes a decision procedure that is capable of determining unsatisfiability of any set of clauses using predicates in the theory. Partial theory resolution employs a weaker decision procedure that can determine potential unsatisfiability of sets of literals. Applications include the building in of both mathematical and special decision procedures, e.g., for the taxonomic information furnished by a knowledge representation system. Theory resolution is a generalization of numerous previously known resolution refinements. Its power is demonstrated by comparing solutions of "Schubert's Steamroller" challenge problem with and without building in axioms through theory resolution. 1 1
Integrating decision procedures into heuristic theorem provers: A case study of linear arithmetic
 Machine Intelligence
, 1988
"... We discuss the problem of incorporating into a heuristic theorem prover a decision procedure for a fragment of the logic. An obvious goal when incorporating such a procedure is to reduce the search space explored by the heuristic component of the system, as would be achieved by eliminating from the ..."
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Cited by 118 (10 self)
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We discuss the problem of incorporating into a heuristic theorem prover a decision procedure for a fragment of the logic. An obvious goal when incorporating such a procedure is to reduce the search space explored by the heuristic component of the system, as would be achieved by eliminating from the system’s data base some explicitly stated axioms. For example, if a decision procedure for linear inequalities is added, one would hope to eliminate the explicit consideration of the transitivity axioms. However, the decision procedure must then be used in all the ways the eliminated axioms might have been. The difficulty of achieving this degree of integration is more dependent upon the complexity of the heuristic component than upon that of the decision procedure. The view of the decision procedure as a &quot;black box &quot; is frequently destroyed by the need pass large amounts of search strategic information back and forth between the two components. Finally, the efficiency of the decision procedure may be virtually irrelevant; the efficiency of the final system may depend most heavily on how easy it is to communicate between the two components. This paper is a case study of how we integrated a linear arithmetic procedure into a heuristic theorem prover. By linear arithmetic here we mean the decidable subset of number theory dealing with universally quantified formulas composed of the logical connectives, the identity relation, the Peano &quot;less than &quot; relation, the Peano addition and subtraction functions, Peano constants,
Fundamentals Of Deductive Program Synthesis
 IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
, 1992
"... An informal tutorial is presented for program synthesis, with an emphasis on deductive methods. According to this approach, to construct a program meeting a given specification, we prove the existence of an object meeting the specified conditions. The proof is restricted to be sufficiently construct ..."
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Cited by 76 (1 self)
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An informal tutorial is presented for program synthesis, with an emphasis on deductive methods. According to this approach, to construct a program meeting a given specification, we prove the existence of an object meeting the specified conditions. The proof is restricted to be sufficiently constructive, in the sense that, in establishing the existence of the desired output, the proof is forced to indicate a computational method for finding it. That method becomes the basis for a program that can be extracted from the proof. The exposition is based on the deductivetableau system, a theoremproving framework particularly suitable for program synthesis. The system includes a nonclausal resolution rule, facilities for reasoning about equality, and a wellfounded induction rule. INTRODUCTION This is an introduction to program synthesis, the derivation of a program to meet a given specification. It focuses on the deductive approach, in which the derivation task is regarded as a problem of ...
Caching and Lemmaizing in Model Elimination Theorem Provers
, 1992
"... Theorem provers based on model elimination have exhibited extremely high inference rates but have lacked a redundancy control mechanism such as subsumption. In this paper we report on work done to modify a model elimination theorem prover using two techniques, caching and lemmaizing, that have reduc ..."
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Cited by 52 (2 self)
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Theorem provers based on model elimination have exhibited extremely high inference rates but have lacked a redundancy control mechanism such as subsumption. In this paper we report on work done to modify a model elimination theorem prover using two techniques, caching and lemmaizing, that have reduced by more than an order of magnitude the time required to find proofs of several problems and that have enabled the prover to prove theorems previously unobtainable by topdown model elimination theorem provers.
Rewrite Techniques for Transitive Relations
 IN PROC., 9TH IEEE SYMPOSIUM ON LOGIC IN COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 1994
"... We propose inference systems for dealing with transitive relations in the context of resolutiontype theorem proving. These inference mechanisms are based on standard techniques from term rewriting and represent a refinement of chaining methods. We establish their refutational completeness and al ..."
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Cited by 38 (6 self)
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We propose inference systems for dealing with transitive relations in the context of resolutiontype theorem proving. These inference mechanisms are based on standard techniques from term rewriting and represent a refinement of chaining methods. We establish their refutational completeness and also prove their compatibility with the usual simplification techniques used in rewritebased theorem provers. A key to the practicality of chaining techniques is the extent to which socalled variable chainings can be restricted. We demonstrate that rewrite techniques considerably restrict variable chaining, though we also show that they cannot be completely avoided for transitive relations in general. If the given relation satisfies additional properties, such as symmetry, further restrictions are possible. In particular, we discuss (partial) equivalence relations and congruence relations.
Birewrite systems
, 1996
"... In this article we propose an extension of term rewriting techniques to automate the deduction in monotone preorder theories. To prove an inclusion a ⊆ b from a given set I of them, we generate from I, using a completion procedure, a birewrite system 〈R⊆, R⊇〉, that is, a pair of rewrite relations ..."
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Cited by 31 (9 self)
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In this article we propose an extension of term rewriting techniques to automate the deduction in monotone preorder theories. To prove an inclusion a ⊆ b from a given set I of them, we generate from I, using a completion procedure, a birewrite system 〈R⊆, R⊇〉, that is, a pair of rewrite relations −−− → R ⊆ and −−− → R ⊇ , and seek a common term c such that a −−−→ R ⊆ c and b −−−→
Semantic Forgetting in Answer Set Programming
, 2008
"... The notion of forgetting, also known as variable elimination, has been investigated extensively in the context of classical logic, but less so in (nonmonotonic) logic programming and nonmonotonic reasoning. The few approaches that exist are based on syntactic modifications of a program at hand. In t ..."
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Cited by 30 (11 self)
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The notion of forgetting, also known as variable elimination, has been investigated extensively in the context of classical logic, but less so in (nonmonotonic) logic programming and nonmonotonic reasoning. The few approaches that exist are based on syntactic modifications of a program at hand. In this paper, we establish a declarative theory of forgetting for disjunctive logic programs under answer set semantics that is fully based on semantic grounds. The suitability of this theory is justified by a number of desirable properties. In particular, one of our results shows that our notion of forgetting can be entirely captured by classical forgetting. We present several algorithms for computing a representation of the result of forgetting, and provide a characterization of the computational complexity of reasoning from a logic program under forgetting. As applications of our approach, we present a fairly general framework for resolving conflicts in inconsistent knowledge bases that are represented by disjunctive logic programs, and we show how the semantics of inheritance logic programs and update logic programs from the literature can be characterized through forgetting. The basic idea of the conflict resolution framework is to weaken the preferences of each agent by forgetting certain knowledge that causes inconsistency. In particular, we show how to use the notion of forgetting to provide an elegant solution for preference elicitation in disjunctive logic programming.
Ordered Chainings for Total Orderings
, 1995
"... We design new inference systems for total orderings by applying rewrite techniques to chaining calculi. Equality relations may either be specified axiomatically or built into the deductive calculus via paramodulation or superposition. We demonstrate that our inference systems are compatible with ..."
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Cited by 25 (7 self)
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We design new inference systems for total orderings by applying rewrite techniques to chaining calculi. Equality relations may either be specified axiomatically or built into the deductive calculus via paramodulation or superposition. We demonstrate that our inference systems are compatible with a concept of (global) redundancy for clauses and inferences that covers such widely used simplification techniques as tautology deletion, subsumption, and demodulation. A key to the practicality of chaining techniques is the extent to which socalled variable chainings can be restricted. Syntactic ordering restrictions on terms and the rewrite techniques which account for their completeness considerably restrict variable chaining. We show that variable elimination is an admissible simplification techniques within our redundancy framework, and that consequently for dense total orderings without endpoints no variable chaining is needed at all.
The "Limit" Domain
 In
, 1998
"... Proof planning is an application of AIplanning in mathematical domains. As opposed to planning for domains such as blocks world or transportation, the domain knowledge for mathematical domains is dicult to extract. Hence proof planning requires clever knowledge engineering and representation ..."
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Cited by 23 (12 self)
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Proof planning is an application of AIplanning in mathematical domains. As opposed to planning for domains such as blocks world or transportation, the domain knowledge for mathematical domains is dicult to extract. Hence proof planning requires clever knowledge engineering and representation of the domain knowledge. We think that on the one hand, the resulting domain denitions that include operators, supermethods, controlrules, and constraint solver are interesting in itself. On the other hand, they can provide ideas for modeling other realistic domains and for means of search reduction in planning. Therefore, we present proof planning and an exemplary domain used for planning proofs of socalled limit theorems that lead to proofs that were beyond the capabilities of other current proof planners and theorem provers. 1 Introduction While humans can cope with long and complex proofs and have strategies to avoid less promising proof paths, classical automated theore...