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26
The Dimensions of Individual Strings and Sequences
 INFORMATION AND COMPUTATION
, 2003
"... A constructive version of Hausdorff dimension is developed using constructive supergales, which are betting strategies that generalize the constructive supermartingales used in the theory of individual random sequences. This constructive dimension is used to assign every individual (infinite, binary ..."
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Cited by 93 (10 self)
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A constructive version of Hausdorff dimension is developed using constructive supergales, which are betting strategies that generalize the constructive supermartingales used in the theory of individual random sequences. This constructive dimension is used to assign every individual (infinite, binary) sequence S a dimension, which is a real number dim(S) in the interval [0, 1]. Sequences that
FiniteState Dimension
, 2001
"... Classical Hausdorff dimension (sometimes called fractal dimension) was recently effectivized using gales (betting strategies that generalize martingales), thereby endowing various complexity classes with dimension structure and also defining the constructive dimensions of individual binary (infinite ..."
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Cited by 38 (16 self)
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Classical Hausdorff dimension (sometimes called fractal dimension) was recently effectivized using gales (betting strategies that generalize martingales), thereby endowing various complexity classes with dimension structure and also defining the constructive dimensions of individual binary (infinite) sequences. In this paper we use gales computed by multiaccount finitestate gamblers to develop the finitestate dimensions of sets of binary sequences and individual binary sequences. The theorem of Eggleston (1949) relating Hausdorff dimension to entropy is shown to hold for finitestate dimension, both in the space of all sequences and in the space of all rational sequences (binary expansions of rational numbers). Every rational sequence has finitestate dimension 0, but every rational number in [0; 1] is the finitestate dimension of a sequence in the lowlevel complexity class AC0 . Our main theorem shows that the finitestate dimension of a sequence is precisely the infimum of all compression ratios achievable on the sequence by informationlossless finitestate compressors.
Hausdorff dimension in exponential time
 Computational Complexity, IEEE Computer Society
"... In this paper we investigate effective versions of Hausdorff dimension which have been recently introduced by Lutz. We focus on dimension in the class E of sets computable in linear exponential time. We determine the dimension of various classes related to fundamental structural properties including ..."
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Cited by 35 (3 self)
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In this paper we investigate effective versions of Hausdorff dimension which have been recently introduced by Lutz. We focus on dimension in the class E of sets computable in linear exponential time. We determine the dimension of various classes related to fundamental structural properties including different types of autoreducibility and immunity. By a new general invariance theorem for resourcebounded dimension we show that the class of pmcomplete sets for E has dimension 1 in E. Moreover, we show that there are pmlower spans in E of dimension H(β) for any rational β between 0 and 1, where H(β) is the binary entropy function. This leads to a new general completeness notion for E that properly extends Lutz’s concept of weak completeness. Finally we characterize resourcebounded dimension in terms of martingales with restricted betting ratios and in terms of prediction functions. 1.
Scaled dimension and nonuniform complexity
 Journal of Computer and System Sciences
, 2004
"... Resourcebounded dimension is a complexitytheoretic extension of classical Hausdorff dimension introduced by Lutz (2000) in order to investigate the fractal structure of sets that have resourcebounded measure 0. For example, while it has long been known that the Boolean circuitsize complexity cla ..."
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Cited by 25 (11 self)
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Resourcebounded dimension is a complexitytheoretic extension of classical Hausdorff dimension introduced by Lutz (2000) in order to investigate the fractal structure of sets that have resourcebounded measure 0. For example, while it has long been known that the Boolean circuitsize complexity class SIZE � α 2n n has measure 0 in ESPACE for all 0 ≤ α ≤ 1, we now know that SIZE � α 2n n has dimension α in ESPACE for all 0 ≤ α ≤ 1. The present paper furthers this program by developing a natural hierarchy of “rescaled” resourcebounded dimensions. For each integer i and each set X of decision problems, we define the ithorder dimension of X in suitable complexity classes. The 0thorder dimension is precisely the dimension of Hausdorff (1919) and Lutz (2000). Higher and lower orders are useful for various sets X. For example, we prove the following for 0 ≤ α ≤ 1 and any polynomial q(n) ≥ n2. 1. The class SIZE(2 αn) and the time and spacebounded Kolmogorov complexity classes KT q (2 αn) and KS q (2 αn) have 1 storder dimension α in ESPACE. 2. The classes SIZE(2nα), KT q (2nα), and KS q (2nα) have 2ndorder dimension α in ESPACE.
A lower cone in the wtt degrees of nonintegral effective dimension
 In Proceedings of IMS workshop on Computational Prospects of Infinity
, 2006
"... ABSTRACT. For any rational number r, we show that there exists a set A (weak truthtable reducible to the halting problem) such that any set B weak truthtable reducible to it has effective Hausdorff dimension at most r, where A itself has dimension at least r. This implies, for any rational r, the e ..."
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Cited by 23 (2 self)
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ABSTRACT. For any rational number r, we show that there exists a set A (weak truthtable reducible to the halting problem) such that any set B weak truthtable reducible to it has effective Hausdorff dimension at most r, where A itself has dimension at least r. This implies, for any rational r, the existence of a wttlower cone of effective dimension r. 1.
Correspondence Principles for Effective Dimensions
 In Proceedings of the 29th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming
, 2001
"... We show that the classical Hausdorff and constructive dimensions of any union of 1  definable sets of binary sequences are equal. If the union is effective, that is, the set of sequences is 2 definable, then the computable dimension also equals the Hausdorff dimension. This second result is implic ..."
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Cited by 20 (6 self)
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We show that the classical Hausdorff and constructive dimensions of any union of 1  definable sets of binary sequences are equal. If the union is effective, that is, the set of sequences is 2 definable, then the computable dimension also equals the Hausdorff dimension. This second result is implicit in the work of Staiger (1998). Staiger also proved related results using entropy rates of decidable languages. We show that Staiger's computable entropy rate provides an equivalent definition of computable dimension. We also prove that a constructive version of Staiger's entropy rate coincides with constructive dimension.
Gales suffice for constructive dimension
 Information Processing Letters
, 2003
"... Supergales, generalizations of supermartingales, have been used by Lutz (2002) to define the constructive dimensions of individual binary sequences. Here it is shown that gales, the corresponding generalizations of martingales, can be equivalently used to define constructive dimension. 1 ..."
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Cited by 19 (4 self)
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Supergales, generalizations of supermartingales, have been used by Lutz (2002) to define the constructive dimensions of individual binary sequences. Here it is shown that gales, the corresponding generalizations of martingales, can be equivalently used to define constructive dimension. 1
Constructive Dimension equals Kolmogorov Complexity
 INFORMATION PROCESSING LETTERS
, 2003
"... ..."
Prediction and Dimension
 Journal of Computer and System Sciences
, 2002
"... Given a set X of sequences over a nite alphabet, we investigate the following three quantities. (i) The feasible predictability of X is the highest success ratio that a polynomialtime randomized predictor can achieve on all sequences in X. ..."
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Cited by 17 (3 self)
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Given a set X of sequences over a nite alphabet, we investigate the following three quantities. (i) The feasible predictability of X is the highest success ratio that a polynomialtime randomized predictor can achieve on all sequences in X.