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"... a: Zero mean white noise signal C(·): Controller transfer function e, E: Scalar error signal and a k×m matrix containing error signal values f(·): Arbitrary function F: Linear mapping matrix of dimension n×m G(·): Transfer function (for a process, closed loop system etc.) i,j: Indices for vector and ..."

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a: Zero mean white noise signal C(·): Controller transfer function e, E: Scalar error signal and a k×m matrix containing error signal values f(·): Arbitrary function F: Linear mapping matrix of dimension n×m G(·): Transfer function (for a process, closed loop system etc.) i,j: Indices for vector and matrix elements J(·): Cost function k: Number of data samples, i.e., local iteration steps K: Number of global iteration steps Kc: Critical gain of the controller KOL: Open loop gain of the process KP: Proportional gain of the PID controller L: Time lag, delay L(·): Filter transfer function m: Number of quality measures; dimension of output space M: Number of latent basis vectors in output oriented subspace n: Number of the parameters; dimension of input space N: Number of latent basis vectors in input oriented subspace q, Q: Quality measure vector and matrix, dimensions m×1 and k×m, respectively; shift operator r: Reference signal; setpoint R n: n-dimensional linear space s: Laplace variable t: Continuous or discrete time index Tc: Period of the critical oscillation TI: Integration time TD: Derivation time TR: Rise time TS: Settling time