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20
Alias Types for Recursive Data Structures
, 2000
"... Linear type systems permit programmers to deallocate or explicitly recycle memory, but they are severly restricted by the fact that they admit no aliasing. This paper describes a pseudolinear type system that allows a degree of aliasing and memory reuse as well as the ability to define complex recu ..."
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Cited by 146 (13 self)
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Linear type systems permit programmers to deallocate or explicitly recycle memory, but they are severly restricted by the fact that they admit no aliasing. This paper describes a pseudolinear type system that allows a degree of aliasing and memory reuse as well as the ability to define complex recursive data structures. Our type system can encode conventional linear data structures such as linear lists and trees as well as more sophisticated data structures including cyclic and doublylinked lists and trees. In the latter cases, our type system is expressive enough to represent pointer aliasing and yet safely permit destructive operations such as object deallocation. We demonstrate the flexibility of our type system by encoding two common compiler optimizations: destinationpassing style and DeutschSchorrWaite or "linkreversal" traversal algorithms.
A Trace Model for Pointers and Objects
 In Proc. 13th ECOOP, volume 1628 of LNCS
, 1999
"... Objectoriented programs [Dahl, Goldberg, Meyer] are notoriously prone to the following kinds of error, which could lead to increasingly severe problems in the presence of tasking 1. Following a null pointer 2. Deletion of an accessible object 3. Failure to delete an inaccessible object 4. Interfere ..."
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Cited by 24 (2 self)
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Objectoriented programs [Dahl, Goldberg, Meyer] are notoriously prone to the following kinds of error, which could lead to increasingly severe problems in the presence of tasking 1. Following a null pointer 2. Deletion of an accessible object 3. Failure to delete an inaccessible object 4. Interference due to equality of pointers 5. Inhibition of optimisation due to fear of (4) Type disciplines and object classes are a great help in avoiding these errors. Stronger protection may be obtainable with the help of assertions, particularly invariants, which are intended to be true before and after each call of a method that updates the structure of the heap. This note introduces a mathematical model and language for the formulation of assertions about objects and pointers, and suggests that a graphical calculus [Curtis, Lowe] may help in reasoning about program correctness. It deals with both garbagecollected heaps and the other kind. The theory is based on a trace model of graphs, using ideas from process algebra; and our development seeks to exploit this analogy as a unifying principle. 1
Feature algebra
 IN FORMAL METHODS, VOLUME 4085 OF LNCS
, 2006
"... Based on experience from the hardware industry, product families have entered the software development process as well, since software developers often prefer not to build a single product but rather a family of similar products that share at least one common functionality while having wellidenti ..."
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Cited by 18 (5 self)
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Based on experience from the hardware industry, product families have entered the software development process as well, since software developers often prefer not to build a single product but rather a family of similar products that share at least one common functionality while having wellidentified variabilities. Such shared commonalities, also called features, reach from common hardware parts to software artefacts such as requirements, architectural properties, components, middleware, or code. We use idempotent semirings as the basis for a feature algebra that allows a formal treatment of the above notions as well as calculations with them. In particular models of feature algebra the elements are sets of products, i.e. product families. We extend the algebra to cover product lines, refinement, product development and product classification. Finally we briefly describe a prototype implementation of one particular model.
Characterizing Determinacy in Kleene Algebras
 INFORMATION SCIENCES
, 2000
"... Elements of Kleene algebras can be used, among others, as abstractions of the inputoutput semantics of nondeterministic programs or as models for the association of pointers with their target objects. In the first case, one seeks to distinguish the subclass of elements that correspond to determinist ..."
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Cited by 12 (5 self)
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Elements of Kleene algebras can be used, among others, as abstractions of the inputoutput semantics of nondeterministic programs or as models for the association of pointers with their target objects. In the first case, one seeks to distinguish the subclass of elements that correspond to deterministic programs. In the second case one is only interested in functional correspondences, since it does not make sense for a pointer to point to two di#erent objects. We discuss several candidate notions of determinacy and clarify their relationship. Some characterizations that are equivalent in the case where the underlying Kleene algebra is an (abstract) relation algebra are not equivalent for general Kleene algebras.
Algebraic Separation Logic
, 2010
"... We present an algebraic approach to separation logic. In particular, we give an algebraic characterisation for assertions of separation logic, discuss different classes of assertions and prove abstract laws fully algebraically. After that, we use our algebraic framework to give a relational semantic ..."
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Cited by 11 (6 self)
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We present an algebraic approach to separation logic. In particular, we give an algebraic characterisation for assertions of separation logic, discuss different classes of assertions and prove abstract laws fully algebraically. After that, we use our algebraic framework to give a relational semantics of the commands of the simple programming language associated with separation logic. On this basis we prove the frame rule in an abstract and concise way. We also propose a more general version of separating conjunction which leads to a frame rule that is easier to prove. In particular, we show how to algebraically formulate the requirement that a command does not change certain variables; this is also expressed more conveniently using the generalised separating conjunction. The algebraic view does not only yield new insights on separation logic but also shortens proofs due to a point free representation. It is largely firstorder and hence enables the use of offtheshelf automated theorem provers for verifying properties at a more abstract level.
Calculational Derivation of Pointer Algorithms from Tree Operations
 Science of Computer Programming
, 1998
"... We describe an approach to the derivation of correct algorithms on treebased pointer structures. The approach is based on enriching trees in a way that allows us to model commonlyused pointer manipulations on tree structures. ..."
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Cited by 9 (1 self)
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We describe an approach to the derivation of correct algorithms on treebased pointer structures. The approach is based on enriching trees in a way that allows us to model commonlyused pointer manipulations on tree structures.
wp is wlp
 RELATIONAL METHODS IN COMPUTER SCIENCE. LNCS 3929
, 2006
"... Using only a simple transition relation one cannot model commands that may or may not terminate in a given state. In a more general approach commands are relations enriched with termination vectors. We reconstruct this model in modal Kleene algebra. This links the recursive definition of the do od l ..."
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Cited by 8 (6 self)
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Using only a simple transition relation one cannot model commands that may or may not terminate in a given state. In a more general approach commands are relations enriched with termination vectors. We reconstruct this model in modal Kleene algebra. This links the recursive definition of the do od loop with a combination of the Kleene star and a convergence operator. Moreover, the standard wp operator coincides with the wlp operator in the modal Kleene algebra of commands. Therefore our earlier general soundness and relative completeness proof for Hoare logic in modal Kleene algebra can be reused for wp. Although the definition of the loop semantics is motivated via the standard EgliMilner ordering, the actual construction does not depend on EgliMilnerisotonicity of the constructs involved.
Programming with Variable Functions
 In Proceedings of the 1998 ACM SIGPLAN International Conference on Functional Programming
, 1998
"... What is a good method to specify and derive imperative programs? This paper argues that a new form of functional programming fits the bill, where variable functions can be updated at specified points in their domain. Traditional algebraic specification and functional programming are a powerful pair ..."
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Cited by 8 (0 self)
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What is a good method to specify and derive imperative programs? This paper argues that a new form of functional programming fits the bill, where variable functions can be updated at specified points in their domain. Traditional algebraic specification and functional programming are a powerful pair of tools for specifying and implementing domains of discourse and operations on them. Recent work on evolving algebras has introduced the function update in algebraic specifications, and has applied it with good success in the modelling of reactive systems. We show that similar concepts allow one to derive efficient programs in a systematic way from functional specifications. The final outcome of such a derivation can be made as efficient as a traditional imperative program with pointers, but can still be reasoned about at a high level. Variable functions can also play an important role in the structuring of large systems. They can subsume objectoriented programming languages, without incu...
A Relational Approach To Optimization Problems
, 1996
"... The main contribution of this thesis is a study of the dynamic programming and greedy strategies for solving combinatorial optimization problems. The study is carried out in the context of a calculus of relations, and generalises previous work by using a loop operator in the imperative programming s ..."
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Cited by 7 (0 self)
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The main contribution of this thesis is a study of the dynamic programming and greedy strategies for solving combinatorial optimization problems. The study is carried out in the context of a calculus of relations, and generalises previous work by using a loop operator in the imperative programming style for generating feasible solutions, rather than the fold and unfold operators of the functional programming style. The relationship between fold operators and loop operators is explored, and it is shown how to convert from the former to the latter. This fresh approach provides additional insights into the relationship between dynamic programming and greedy algorithms, and helps to unify previously distinct approaches to solving combinatorial optimization problems. Some of the solutions discovered are new and solve problems which had previously proved difficult. The material is illustrated with a selection of problems and solutions that is a mixture of old and new. Another contribution is the invention of a new calculus, called the graph calculus, which is a useful tool for reasoning in the relational calculus and other nonrelational calculi. The graph
Linked Lists Calculated
, 1997
"... We use a relational calculus of pointer structures to calculate a number of standard algorithms on singly linked lists, both acyclic and cyclic. This shows that our techniques are not just useful for treelike structures, but apply to general pointer structures as well. ..."
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Cited by 2 (0 self)
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We use a relational calculus of pointer structures to calculate a number of standard algorithms on singly linked lists, both acyclic and cyclic. This shows that our techniques are not just useful for treelike structures, but apply to general pointer structures as well.