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Principles and practice in reporting structural equation analyses
 PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS
, 2002
"... Principles for reporting analyses using structural equation modeling are reviewed, with the goal of supplying readers with complete and accurate information. It is recommended that every report give a detailed justification of the model used, along with plausible alternatives and an account of ident ..."
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Principles for reporting analyses using structural equation modeling are reviewed, with the goal of supplying readers with complete and accurate information. It is recommended that every report give a detailed justification of the model used, along with plausible alternatives and an account of identifiability. Nonnormality and missing data problems should also be addressed. A complete set of parameters and their standard errors is desirable, and it will often be convenient to supply the correlation matrix and discrepancies, as well as goodnessoffit indices, so that readers can exercise independent critical judgment. A survey of fairly representative studies compares recent practice with the principles of reporting recommended here.
Perceiving pervasive discrimination among African Americans: Implications for group identification and wellbeing
 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
, 1999
"... The processes involved in wellbeing maintenance among African Americans who differed in their attributions to prejudice were examined. A rejectionidentification model was proposed where stable attributions to prejudice represent rejection by the dominant group. This results in a direct and negativ ..."
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Cited by 63 (1 self)
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The processes involved in wellbeing maintenance among African Americans who differed in their attributions to prejudice were examined. A rejectionidentification model was proposed where stable attributions to prejudice represent rejection by the dominant group. This results in a direct and negative effect on wellbeing. The model also predicts a positive effect on wellbeing that is mediated by minority group identification. In other words, the generally negative consequences of perceiving oneself as a victim of racial prejudice can be somewhat alleviated by identification with the minority group. Structural equation analyses provided support for the model and ruled out alternative theoretical possibilities. Perceiving prejudice as pervasive produces effects on wellbeing that are fundamentally different from those that may arise from an unstable attribution to prejudice for a single negative outcome. Since the time of Lewin (1948), social psychological research has reflected an abiding concern for the alleviation of social problems. Given this emphasis, it is not surprising that perspectives on prejudice and discrimination have primarily focused on their source—those who are members of dominant social groups. Thus, there are large literatures that have examined individual differences in stereotyped beliefs, prejudicial attitudes, and willingness to discriminate against a variety of devalued groups (Ba
Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodnessoffit measures
 Methods of Psychological Research
, 2003
"... For structural equation models, a huge variety of fit indices has been developed. These indices, however, can point to conflicting conclusions about the extent to which a model actually matches the observed data. The present article provides some guidelines that should help applied researchers to e ..."
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For structural equation models, a huge variety of fit indices has been developed. These indices, however, can point to conflicting conclusions about the extent to which a model actually matches the observed data. The present article provides some guidelines that should help applied researchers to evaluate the adequacy of a given structural equation model. First, as goodnessoffit measures depend on the method used for parameter estimation, maximum likelihood (ML) and weighted least squares (WLS) methods are introduced in the context of structural equation modeling. Then, the most common goodnessoffit indices are discussed and some recommendations for practitioners given. Finally, we generated an artificial data set according to a "true" model and analyzed two misspecified and two correctly specified models as examples of poor model fit, adequate fit, and good fit.
Measuring transactive memory systems in the field: Scale development and validation
 Journal of Applied Psychology
"... This study describes the development and validity testing of a field measure of transactive memory systems. Transactive memory systems are especially important for teams designed to leverage members’ expertise, but field research has lagged because there are no adequate measures of the construct. Th ..."
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Cited by 46 (0 self)
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This study describes the development and validity testing of a field measure of transactive memory systems. Transactive memory systems are especially important for teams designed to leverage members’ expertise, but field research has lagged because there are no adequate measures of the construct. The author developed and tested a 15item scale in a laboratory sample of 124 teams, a field sample of 64 Master of Business Administration consulting teams, and a field sample of 27 teams from technology companies. Results from the present study demonstrate that the scale is internally consistent, related to alternative measures and hypothesized causes and effects, and unrelated to theoretically distinct constructs, providing evidence of convergent, criterionrelated, and discriminant validity. Suggestions for improving the scale, future validity testing, and possible boundary conditions are discussed. Many organizations today rely on knowledge assets to differentiate their products and services. One way that organizations leverage these assets is with knowledgeworker teams, whose members use expertise and experience to solve problems and create intellective products. This trend may explain a renewed interest in teams research, particularly in the knowledge processes
Bayesian Estimation and Testing of Structural Equation Models
 Psychometrika
, 1999
"... The Gibbs sampler can be used to obtain samples of arbitrary size from the posterior distribution over the parameters of a structural equation model (SEM) given covariance data and a prior distribution over the parameters. Point estimates, standard deviations and interval estimates for the parameter ..."
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Cited by 30 (8 self)
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The Gibbs sampler can be used to obtain samples of arbitrary size from the posterior distribution over the parameters of a structural equation model (SEM) given covariance data and a prior distribution over the parameters. Point estimates, standard deviations and interval estimates for the parameters can be computed from these samples. If the prior distribution over the parameters is uninformative, the posterior is proportional to the likelihood, and asymptotically the inferences based on the Gibbs sample are the same as those based on the maximum likelihood solution, e.g., output from LISREL or EQS. In small samples, however, the likelihood surface is not Gaussian and in some cases contains local maxima. Nevertheless, the Gibbs sample comes from the correct posterior distribution over the parameters regardless of the sample size and the shape of the likelihood surface. With an informative prior distribution over the parameters, the posterior can be used to make inferences about the parameters of underidentified models, as we illustrate on a simple errorsinvariables model.
Development of a measure of workplace deviance
 Journal of Applied Psychology
, 2000
"... The purpose of this research was to develop broad, theoretically derived measure(s) of deviant behavior in the workplace. Two scales were developed: a 12item scale of organizational deviance (deviant behaviors directly harmful to the organization) and a 7item scale of interpersonal deviance (devia ..."
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The purpose of this research was to develop broad, theoretically derived measure(s) of deviant behavior in the workplace. Two scales were developed: a 12item scale of organizational deviance (deviant behaviors directly harmful to the organization) and a 7item scale of interpersonal deviance (deviant behaviors directly harmful to other individuals within the organization). These scales were found to have internal reliabilities of.81 and.78, respectively. Confirmatory factor analysis verified that a 2factor structure had acceptable fit. Preliminary evidence of construct validity is also provided. The implications of this instrument for future empirical research on workplace deviance are discussed. Workplace deviance is a pervasive and expensive problem for organizations. For example, 75 % of employees have reportedly stolen from their employer at least once (McGurn, 1988), and it has been estimated that 33 % to 75 % of all employees have engaged in behaviors such as theft, fraud, vandalism, sabotage, and voluntary absenteeism (Harper, 1990). In recent studies, almost 25 % of an employee sample indicated knowledge of illicit drug use among coworkers during the past year (Lehman, Wolcom, &
Positive youth development, participation in community youth development programs, and community contributions of fifth grade adolescents: Findings from the first wave of the 4H Study of Positive Youth Development
 Journal of Early Adolescence
, 2005
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The assessment of goal commitment: A measurement model metaanalysis
 Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes
, 2001
"... Goals are central to current treatments of work motivation, and goal commitment is a critical construct in understanding the relationship between goals and performance. Inconsistency in the measurement of goal commitment hindered early research in this area but the nineitem, selfreport scale devel ..."
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Goals are central to current treatments of work motivation, and goal commitment is a critical construct in understanding the relationship between goals and performance. Inconsistency in the measurement of goal commitment hindered early research in this area but the nineitem, selfreport scale developed by Hollenbeck, Williams, and Klein (1989b), and derivatives of that scale, have become the most commonly used measures of goal commitment. Despite
The use of latent trajectory models in psychopathology research
 Journal of Abnormal Psychology
, 2003
"... Despite the recent surge in the development of powerful modeling strategies to test questions about individual differences in stability and change over time, these methods are not currently widely used in psychopathology research. In an attempt to further the dissemination of these new methods, the ..."
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Despite the recent surge in the development of powerful modeling strategies to test questions about individual differences in stability and change over time, these methods are not currently widely used in psychopathology research. In an attempt to further the dissemination of these new methods, the authors present a pedagogical introduction to the structural equation modeling based latent trajectory model, or LTM. They review several different types of LTMs, discuss matching an optimal LTM to a given question of interest, and highlight several issues that might be particularly salient for research in psychopathology. The authors augment each section with a review of published applications of these methods in psychopathologyrelated research to demonstrate the implementation and interpretation of LTMs in practice. As described in the masthead, the Journal of Abnormal Psychology is dedicated to the publication of articles that explore the correlates and determinants of abnormal behavior. Among other aspects of study, it is stated that “Each article should represent an addition to knowledge and understanding of abnormal behavior in its etiology, description, or change. ” One powerful method that can
The conceptualization and measurement of symbolic racism
 The Journal of Politics
, 2005
"... The conceptualization and measurement of symbolic racism have been the subjects of a number of critiques, of which we address four: (1) we briefly review the history of its past conceptualization, which has been somewhat loose, and of its past measurement, which has been more consistent than often s ..."
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The conceptualization and measurement of symbolic racism have been the subjects of a number of critiques, of which we address four: (1) we briefly review the history of its past conceptualization, which has been somewhat loose, and of its past measurement, which has been more consistent than often suggested. We then address three other critiques empirically. In each case the results support the original theory: (2) symbolic racism is an internally consistent belief system; it does have individual and structural variants, but they are highly correlated and have virtually identical effects on whites ’ racial policy preferences; (3) the effects of symbolic racism on whites ’ racial policy preferences are not artifacts of shareditem content with policyattitude items (both conclusions are replicated in quite similar form in two surveys); and (4) symbolic racism is a distinctive belief system in its own right, encompassing a set of attitudes different from those in ideological conservatism, antiegalitarianism, individualism, and oldfashioned racism (a conclusion replicated in similar form in six surveys). Perhaps most importantly, the effects of symbolic racism on racial policy preferences are the same regardless of which conventional measure of symbolic racism is used. The dismantling of the Southern Jim Crow system in the 1960s cemented basic civil and political rights for African Americans. It also catalyzed a gradual shift