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Snakes: Active contour models
 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER VISION
, 1988
"... A snake is an energyminimizing spline guided by external constraint forces and influenced by image forces that pull it toward features such as lines and edges. Snakes are active contour models: they lock onto nearby edges, localizing them accurately. Scalespace continuation can be used to enlarge ..."
Abstract

Cited by 3072 (16 self)
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A snake is an energyminimizing spline guided by external constraint forces and influenced by image forces that pull it toward features such as lines and edges. Snakes are active contour models: they lock onto nearby edges, localizing them accurately. Scalespace continuation can be used to enlarge the capture region surrounding a feature. Snakes provide a unified account of a number of visual problems, including detection of edges, lines, and subjective contours; motion tracking; and stereo matching. We have used snakes successfully for interactive interpretation, in which userimposed constraint forces guide the snake near features of interest.
The Curvature Primal Sketch
 Acquisition of Visual Motion Guided Behaviors,” IJCAI'95
, 1984
"... In this paper we introduce a novel representation of the significant changes in curvature along the bounding contour of planar shape. Ve call the representation the curvature primgl ,sketch. We describe an implemented algorithn that computes the curvature primal sketch and illustra. te its performan ..."
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Cited by 188 (3 self)
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In this paper we introduce a novel representation of the significant changes in curvature along the bounding contour of planar shape. Ve call the representation the curvature primgl ,sketch. We describe an implemented algorithn that computes the curvature primal sketch and illustra. te its performance on a set of tool shapes. The curvature primal sketch derites ils name from the close analogy to the primal sketch representation advocated ty Mart for descri.bi!)g significant intensity changes. We define a set of primitive parameterized curvature discontinuities, and derive expressions for their convolutions vith the first and second derivatives ot' a Gaussian. The convolved primitives, sorted according to the scale at 'which they are detected, provide us with a multiscaled interpretation of the'contoar of a shape.
Stochastic Completion Fields: A Neural Model of Illusory Contour Shape and Salience
 Neural Computation
, 1995
"... We describe an algorithm and representation level theory of illusory contour shape and salience. Unlike previous theories, our model is derived from a single assumption namely, that the prior probability distribution of boundary completion shape can be modeled by a random walk in a lattice whose ..."
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Cited by 176 (14 self)
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We describe an algorithm and representation level theory of illusory contour shape and salience. Unlike previous theories, our model is derived from a single assumption namely, that the prior probability distribution of boundary completion shape can be modeled by a random walk in a lattice whose points are positions and orientations in the image plane (i.e., the space which one can reasonably assume is represented by neurons of the mammalian visual cortex). Our model does not employ numerical relaxation or other explicit minimization, but instead relies on the fact that the probability that a particle following a random walk will pass through a given position and orientation on a path joining two boundary fragments can be computed directly as the product of two vectorfield convolutions. We show that for the random walk we define, the maximum likelihood paths are curves of least energy, that is, on average, random walks follow paths commonly assumed to model the shape of illusory co...
Structural Saliency: The Detection of Globally Salient Structures Using a Locally Connected Network
, 1988
"... When we look at images, certain salient structures often attract our immediate attention, without requiring a systematic scan of the entire image. In subsequent stages, processing resources can be allocated preferentially to these salient structures. In many cases this saJiency is a property of the ..."
Abstract

Cited by 142 (1 self)
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When we look at images, certain salient structures often attract our immediate attention, without requiring a systematic scan of the entire image. In subsequent stages, processing resources can be allocated preferentially to these salient structures. In many cases this saJiency is a property of the structure as a whole, i.e., parts of the structure are not salient in isolation. In this paper we present a saliency measure based on cur vature and curvature variation. The structures this measure emphasizes are also salient in human perception, and they often correspond to objects of interest in the image. We present a method for computing the sallehey by a simple iterative scheme, using a uniform network of locally connected processing elements. The network uses an optimization approach to produce a "saliency map" which is a representation of the image emphasizing salient locations. The main.properties of the network are: (i) the computations are simple and local, (ii) globally salient structures emerge with a small number of iterations (iii) as a byproduct of the computation contours are smoothed, and gaps are filledin.
Mechanisms of contour perception in monkey visual cortex. I. Lines of pattern discontinuity
 JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE
, 1989
"... We have studied the mechanism of contour perception by recording from neurons in the visual cortex of alert rhesus monkeys. In order to assess the relationship between neural signals and perception, we compared the responses to edges and lines with the responses to patterns in which human observers ..."
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Cited by 92 (2 self)
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We have studied the mechanism of contour perception by recording from neurons in the visual cortex of alert rhesus monkeys. In order to assess the relationship between neural signals and perception, we compared the responses to edges and lines with the responses to patterns in which human observers perceive a contour where no line or edge is given (anomalous contour), such as the border between gratings of thin lines offset by half a cycle. With only one exception out of 60, orientationselective neurons in area Vl did not signal the anomalous contour. Many neurons failed to respond to this stimulus at all, others responded according to the orientation of the grating lines. In area V2, 45 of 103 neurons (44%) signaled the orientation of the anomalous contour. Sixteen did so without signaling the orientation of the inducing lines. Some responded better to anomalous
The Curve Of Least Energy
, 1983
"... Here we search fi)r the curve which has the smallest integral of the square of curvature, while passing through two given points with given orientation. This is the true shape of a spline used in lofting. In computeraided design, curves have been sought which maximize "smoothness". The curve discus ..."
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Cited by 72 (2 self)
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Here we search fi)r the curve which has the smallest integral of the square of curvature, while passing through two given points with given orientation. This is the true shape of a spline used in lofting. In computeraided design, curves have been sought which maximize "smoothness". The curve discussed here is the one arising in this way from a commonly used measure of smoothness. The human visual system may use such a curve when it constructs a subjective contour.
Completion energies and scale
, 2000
"... The detection of smooth curves in images and their completion over gaps are two important problems in perceptual grouping. In this study, we examine the notion of completion energy of curve elements, showing, and exploiting its intrinsic dependence on length and width scales. We introduce a fast met ..."
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Cited by 49 (6 self)
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The detection of smooth curves in images and their completion over gaps are two important problems in perceptual grouping. In this study, we examine the notion of completion energy of curve elements, showing, and exploiting its intrinsic dependence on length and width scales. We introduce a fast method for computing the most likelycompletion between two elements, by developing novel analytic approximations and a fast numerical procedure for computing the curve of least energy. We then use our newlydeveloped energies to find the most likelycompletions in images through a generalized summation of induction fields. This is done through multiscale procedures, i.e., separate processing at different scales with some interscale interactions. Such procedures allow the summation of all induction fields to be done in a total of only O(N log N) operations, where N is the number of pixels in the image. More important, such procedures yield a more realistic dependence of the induction field on the length and width scales: The field of a long element is verydifferent from the sum of the fields of its composing short segments.
Learning How to Inpaint from Global Image Statistics
"... Inpainting is the problem of fillingin holes in images. Considerable progress has been made by techniques that use the immediate boundary of the hole and some prior information on images to solve this problem. These algorithms successfully solve the local inpainting problem but they must, by defini ..."
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Cited by 42 (1 self)
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Inpainting is the problem of fillingin holes in images. Considerable progress has been made by techniques that use the immediate boundary of the hole and some prior information on images to solve this problem. These algorithms successfully solve the local inpainting problem but they must, by definition, give the same completion to any two holes that have the same boundary, even when the rest of the image is vastly different.
Perceptual Completion of Occluded Surfaces
, 1994
"... Researchers in computer vision have primarily studied the problem of visual reconstruction of environmental structure that is plainly visible. In this thesis, the conventional goals of visual reconstruction are generalized to include both visible and occluded forward facing surfaces. This larger f ..."
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Cited by 31 (5 self)
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Researchers in computer vision have primarily studied the problem of visual reconstruction of environmental structure that is plainly visible. In this thesis, the conventional goals of visual reconstruction are generalized to include both visible and occluded forward facing surfaces. This larger fraction of the environment is termed the anterior surfaces. Because multiple anterior surface neighborhoods project onto a single image neighborhood wherever surfaces overlap, surface neighborhoods and image neighborhoods are not guaranteed to be in onetoone correspondence, as conventional "shapefrom" methods assume. The result is that the topology of threedimensional scene structure can no longer be taken for granted, but must be inferred from evidence...