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Type Theory via Exact Categories (Extended Abstract)
 In Proceedings of the 13th Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science LICS '98
, 1998
"... Partial equivalence relations (and categories of these) are a standard tool in semantics of type theories and programming languages, since they often provide a cartesian closed category with extended definability. Using the theory of exact categories, we give a categorytheoretic explanation of why ..."
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Partial equivalence relations (and categories of these) are a standard tool in semantics of type theories and programming languages, since they often provide a cartesian closed category with extended definability. Using the theory of exact categories, we give a categorytheoretic explanation of why the construction of a category of partial equivalence relations often produces a cartesian closed category. We show how several familiar examples of categories of partial equivalence relations fit into the general framework. 1 Introduction Partial equivalence relations (and categories of these) are a standard tool in semantics of programming languages, see e.g. [2, 5, 7, 9, 15, 17, 20, 22, 35] and [6, 29] for extensive surveys. They are usefully applied to give proofs of correctness and adequacy since they often provide a cartesian closed category with additional properties. Take for instance a partial equivalence relation on the set of natural numbers: a binary relation R ` N\ThetaN on th...
Verifying Web Browser Extensions ’ Compliance with PrivateBrowsing Mode ∗
"... Abstract. Modern web browsers implement a private browsing mode that is intended to leave behind no traces of a user’s browsing activity on their computer. This feature is in direct tension with support for extensions, which can silently void this guarantee. We create a static type system to analyze ..."
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Abstract. Modern web browsers implement a private browsing mode that is intended to leave behind no traces of a user’s browsing activity on their computer. This feature is in direct tension with support for extensions, which can silently void this guarantee. We create a static type system to analyze JavaScript extensions for observation of private browsing mode. Using this type system, extension authors and app stores can convince themselves of an extension’s safety for private browsing mode. In addition, some extensions intentionally violate the private browsing guarantee; our type system accommodates this with a small annotation overhead, proportional to the degree of violation. These annotations let code auditors narrow their focus to a small fraction of the extension’s codebase. We have retrofitted type annotations to Firefox’s apis and to a sample of actively used Firefox extensions. We used the type system to verify several extensions as safe, find actual bugs in several others (most of which have been confirmed by their authors), and find dubious behavior in the rest. Firefox 20, released April 2, 2013, implements a finergrained private browsing mode; we sketch both the new challenges in this implementation and how our approach can handle them. 1
Lazy Lambda Calculus: Theories, Models and Local Structure Characterisation
 AUTOMATA, LANGUAGES AND PROGRAMMING, LNCS 623
, 1994
"... Lambda Calculus is commonly thought to be the basis for functional programming. However, there is a fundamental mismatch between the "standard" theory of sensible Lambda Calculus (as in e.g. [Bar84]) and the practice of lazy evaluation which is a distinctive feature of functional programm ..."
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Lambda Calculus is commonly thought to be the basis for functional programming. However, there is a fundamental mismatch between the "standard" theory of sensible Lambda Calculus (as in e.g. [Bar84]) and the practice of lazy evaluation which is a distinctive feature of functional programming. This paper proposes modification of a number of key notions in the sensible theory along the lines of laziness. Starting from the strongly unsolvables as the meaningless terms, we define and investigate properties of lazy (or weakly sensible) λtheories, lazy λmodels and a number of lazy behavioural preorders on λterms. In the second part, we show that all these notions have a natural place in a class of lazy psemodels. A major result of this paper is a new local structure theorem for lazy psemodels. This characterizes the ordering between denotations of λterms in the model by a new lazy behavioural preorder.
Infinite λcalculus and Types
, 1998
"... Recent work on infinitary versions of the lambda calculus has shown that the infinite lambda calculus can be a useful tool to study the unsolvable terms of the classical lambda calculus. Working in the framework of the intersection type disciplines, we devise a type assignment system such that two t ..."
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Recent work on infinitary versions of the lambda calculus has shown that the infinite lambda calculus can be a useful tool to study the unsolvable terms of the classical lambda calculus. Working in the framework of the intersection type disciplines, we devise a type assignment system such that two terms are equal in the infinite lambda calculus iff they can be assigned the same types in any basis. A novel feature of the system is the presence of a type constant to denote the set of all terms of order zero, and the possibility of applying a type to another type. We prove a completeness and an approximation theorem for our system. Our results can be considered as a first step towards the goal of giving a denotational semantics for the lambda calculus which is suited for the study of the unsolvable terms. However some noncontinuity phenomena of the infinite lambda calculus make a full realization of this idea (namely the construction of a filter model) a quite difficult task.
Information Categories
 Applied Categorical Structures
, 1991
"... \Information systems" have been introduced by Dana Scott as a convenient means of presenting a certain class of domains of computation, usually known as Scott domains. Essentially the same idea has been developed, if less systematically, by various authors in connection with other classes o ..."
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\Information systems" have been introduced by Dana Scott as a convenient means of presenting a certain class of domains of computation, usually known as Scott domains. Essentially the same idea has been developed, if less systematically, by various authors in connection with other classes of domains. In previous work, the present authors introduced the notion of an Icategory as an abstraction and enhancement of this idea, with emphasis on the solution of domain equations of the form D = F (D), with F a functor. An important feature of the work is that we are not conned to domains of computation as usually understood; other classes of spaces, more familiar to mathematicians in general, become also accessible. Here we present the idea in terms of what we call information categories, which are concrete Icategories in which the objects are structured sets of \tokens" and morphisms are relations between tokens. This is more in the spirit of information system work, and...
Towards Lambda Calculus OrderIncompleteness
 Workshop on Böhm theorem: applications to Computer Science Theory (BOTH 2001) Electronics Notes in Theoretical Computer Science
"... After Scott, mathematical models of the typefree lambda calculus are constructed by order theoretic methods and classified into semantics according to the nature of their representable functions. Selinger [47] asked if there is a lambda theory that is not induced by any nontrivially partially orde ..."
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After Scott, mathematical models of the typefree lambda calculus are constructed by order theoretic methods and classified into semantics according to the nature of their representable functions. Selinger [47] asked if there is a lambda theory that is not induced by any nontrivially partially ordered model (orderincompleteness problem). In terms of Alexandroff topology (the strongest topology whose specialization order is the order of the considered model) the problem of order incompleteness can be also characterized as follows: a lambda theory T is orderincomplete if, and only if, every partially ordered model of T is partitioned by the Alexandroff topology in an infinite number of connected components (= minimal upper and lower sets), each one containing exactly one element of the model. Towards an answer to the orderincompleteness problem, we give a topological proof of the following result: there exists a lambda theory whose partially ordered models are partitioned by the Alexandroff topology in an infinite number of connected components, each one containing at most one term denotation. This result implies the incompleteness of every semantics of lambda calculus given in terms of partially ordered models whose Alexandroff topology has a finite number of connected components (e.g. the Alexandroff topology of the models of the continuous, stable and strongly stable semantics is connected).
Algebraic models of sets and classes in categories of ideals
 In preparation
, 2006
"... We introduce a new sheaftheoretic construction called the ideal completion of a category and investigate its logical properties. We show that it satisfies the axioms for a category of classes in the sense of Joyal and Moerdijk [17], so that the tools of algebraic set theory can be applied to produc ..."
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We introduce a new sheaftheoretic construction called the ideal completion of a category and investigate its logical properties. We show that it satisfies the axioms for a category of classes in the sense of Joyal and Moerdijk [17], so that the tools of algebraic set theory can be applied to produce models of various elementary set theories. These results are then used to prove the conservativity of different set theories over various classical and constructive type theories. 1
Lambda calculus: models and theories
 Proceedings of the Third AMAST Workshop on Algebraic Methods in Language Processing (AMiLP2003), number 21 in TWLT Proceedings, pages 39–54, University of Twente, 2003. Invited Lecture
"... In this paper we give an outline of recent results concerning theories and models of the untyped lambda calculus. Algebraic and topological methods have been applied to study the structure of the lattice of λtheories, the equational incompleteness of lambda calculus semantics, and the λtheories in ..."
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In this paper we give an outline of recent results concerning theories and models of the untyped lambda calculus. Algebraic and topological methods have been applied to study the structure of the lattice of λtheories, the equational incompleteness of lambda calculus semantics, and the λtheories induced by graph models of lambda calculus.
From lambda calculus to universal algebra and back
 33rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science, LNCS
, 2008
"... We generalize to universal algebra concepts originating from lambda calculus and programming in order first to prove a new result on the lattice of λtheories, and second a general theorem of pure universal algebra which can be seen as a meta version of the Stone Representation Theorem. The interest ..."
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We generalize to universal algebra concepts originating from lambda calculus and programming in order first to prove a new result on the lattice of λtheories, and second a general theorem of pure universal algebra which can be seen as a meta version of the Stone Representation Theorem. The interest of a systematic study of the lattice λT of λtheories grows out of several open problems on lambda calculus. For example, the failure of certain lattice identities in λT would imply that the problem of the orderincompleteness of lambda calculus raised by Selinger has a negative answer. In this paper we introduce the class of Church algebras (which includes all Boolean algebras, combinatory algebras, rings with unit and the term algebras of all λtheories) to model the ifthenelse instruction of programming and to extend some properties of Boolean algebras to general universal algebras. The interest of Church algebras is that each has a Boolean algebra of central elements, which play the role of the idempotent elements in rings. Central elements are the key tool to represent any Church algebra as a weak Boolean product of directly indecomposable Church algebras and to prove the meta representation theorem mentioned above. We generalize the notion of easy λterm and prove that any Church algebra with an “easy set ” of cardinality n admits (at the top) a lattice interval of congruences isomorphic to the free Boolean algebra with n generators. This theorem has the following consequence for λT: for every recursively enumerable λtheory φ and each n, there is a λtheory φn ≥ φ such that {ψ: ψ ≥ φn} “is ” the Boolean lattice with 2 n elements. 1.