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72
Image Change Detection Algorithms: A Systematic Survey
 IEEE Transactions on Image Processing
, 2005
"... Detecting regions of change in multiple images of the same scene taken at different times is of widespread interest due to a large number of applications in diverse disciplines, including remote sensing, surveillance, medical diagnosis and treatment, civil infrastructure, and underwater sensing. T ..."
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Cited by 110 (2 self)
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Detecting regions of change in multiple images of the same scene taken at different times is of widespread interest due to a large number of applications in diverse disciplines, including remote sensing, surveillance, medical diagnosis and treatment, civil infrastructure, and underwater sensing. This paper presents a systematic survey of the common processing steps and core decision rules in modern change detection algorithms, including significance and hypothesis testing, predictive models, the shading model, and background modeling. We also discuss important preprocessing methods, approaches to enforcing the consistency of the change mask, and principles for evaluating and comparing the performance of change detection algorithms. It is hoped that our classification of algorithms into a relatively small number of categories will provide useful guidance to the algorithm designer.
An Algorithm for Sums of Squares of Real Polynomials
 Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra
"... This paper was written while the rst author was a visitor at Dortmund University. She gratefully thanks the Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst for funding for this visit, as well as Professor E. Becker and his assistants for their warm hospitality during her stay. AN ALGORITHM FOR SUMS OF SQUAR ..."
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Cited by 30 (0 self)
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This paper was written while the rst author was a visitor at Dortmund University. She gratefully thanks the Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst for funding for this visit, as well as Professor E. Becker and his assistants for their warm hospitality during her stay. AN ALGORITHM FOR SUMS OF SQUARES OF REAL POLYNOMIALS 5
Change detection and background extraction by linear algebra
 Proc. IEEE, 89(10):1368–1381
, 2001
"... Change detection plays a very important role in realtime image analysis, e.g., detection of intruders. One key issue is robustness to varying illumination conditions. We propose two techniques for change detection that have been developed to deal with variations in illumination and background, with ..."
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Cited by 26 (2 self)
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Change detection plays a very important role in realtime image analysis, e.g., detection of intruders. One key issue is robustness to varying illumination conditions. We propose two techniques for change detection that have been developed to deal with variations in illumination and background, with realtime capabilities. The foundations of these techniques are based on a vector model of images and on the exploitation of the concepts of linear dependence and linear independence. Furthermore, the techniques are compatible with physical photometry. A detailed description of the proposed detector and three stateofthe art change detectors is also provided. For the purposes of comparison, an evaluation procedure is presented consisting of both objective and subjective parts. This evaluation procedure results in a final performance value for each detector analyzed. Keywords—Background extraction, change detection, illumination invariance, realtime, surveillance, Wronskian. I.
Theory and Practice of Acoustic Confusability
, 2000
"... In this paper we define two alternatives to the familiar perplexity statistic (hereafter lexical perplexity), which is widely applied both as a measureofgoodness and as an objective function for training language models. These alternatives, respectively acoustic perplexity and the synthetic acoust ..."
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Cited by 16 (1 self)
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In this paper we define two alternatives to the familiar perplexity statistic (hereafter lexical perplexity), which is widely applied both as a measureofgoodness and as an objective function for training language models. These alternatives, respectively acoustic perplexity and the synthetic acoustic word error rate, fuse information from both the language model and the acoustic model. We show how to compute these statistics by effectively synthesizing a large acoustic corpus, demonstrate their superiority to lexical perplexity as predictors of language model performance, and investigate their use as objective functions for training language models. We present results from a simple speech recognition experiment that demonstrate a small reduction in word error rate.
NearOptimal Adaptive Polygonization
 in CGI’99 Proceedings, IEEE Computer Society
, 1999
"... Consider a triangulation of the xy plane, and a general surface z = f#x; y#. The points of the triangle, when lifted to the surface, form a linear spline approximation to the surface. We are interested in the error between the surface and the linear approximant. In fact, we are interested in buildin ..."
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Cited by 4 (1 self)
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Consider a triangulation of the xy plane, and a general surface z = f#x; y#. The points of the triangle, when lifted to the surface, form a linear spline approximation to the surface. We are interested in the error between the surface and the linear approximant. In fact, we are interested in building triangulations in the plane such that the induced linear approximant is nearoptimal with respect to a given error. Here we describe a new method, which iteratively adds points to a "Delaunaylike" triangulation of the plane. We locally approximate f by a quadratic surface and utilize this surface to establish an edgeflipping criterion for a convex quadrilateral that enables us to minimize the error between the surface and the triangulation. Keywords: Nearoptimal polygonmeshes ; Quadratic functions; Taylor polynomial; Delaunay Triangulation; Polygonalization. 1 Corresponding Author; Department of Computer Science, University of Otago, Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand; email: wseibold@atl...
Solving fully fuzzy linear system by use of a certain decomposition of the coefficient matrix
 International Journal of Computational and Mathematical Sciences
, 2008
"... Abstract—In this paper, we give a certain decomposition of the coefficient matrix of the fully fuzzy linear system (FFLS) to obtain a simple algorithm for solving these systems. The new algorithm can solve FFLS in a smaller computing process. We will illustrate our method by solving some examples. K ..."
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Cited by 3 (0 self)
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Abstract—In this paper, we give a certain decomposition of the coefficient matrix of the fully fuzzy linear system (FFLS) to obtain a simple algorithm for solving these systems. The new algorithm can solve FFLS in a smaller computing process. We will illustrate our method by solving some examples. Keywords—Fully fuzzy linear system, Fuzzy number, LUdecomposition. I.
Inflation Persistence When Price Stickiness Differs Between Industries
, 2007
"... There is much evidence that priceadjustment frequencies vary widely across industries. This paper shows that inflation persistence is lower with heterogeneity in price stickiness than without it, taking as given the degree of persistence in variables affecting inflation. Differences in the frequenc ..."
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Cited by 3 (0 self)
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There is much evidence that priceadjustment frequencies vary widely across industries. This paper shows that inflation persistence is lower with heterogeneity in price stickiness than without it, taking as given the degree of persistence in variables affecting inflation. Differences in the frequency of price adjustment mean that the pool of firms which responds to any macroeconomic shock is unrepresentative, containing a disproportionately large number of firms from industries with more flexible prices. Consequently, this group of firms is more likely to reverse any initial price change after a shock has dissipated, making inflation persistence much harder to explain.
Assignment Methods for Incidence Calculus
, 1993
"... Incidence calculus is a mechanism for probabilistic reasoning in which sets of possible worlds, called incidences, are associated with axioms and probabilities are then associated with these sets. Inference rules are used to deduce bounds on the incidences of formulae which are not axioms and bounds ..."
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Cited by 3 (1 self)
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Incidence calculus is a mechanism for probabilistic reasoning in which sets of possible worlds, called incidences, are associated with axioms and probabilities are then associated with these sets. Inference rules are used to deduce bounds on the incidences of formulae which are not axioms and bounds for the probability of such a formula can then be obtained.