Results 1  10
of
125
The algorithmic analysis of hybrid systems
 THEORETICAL COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 1995
"... We present a general framework for the formal specification and algorithmic analysis of hybrid systems. A hybrid system consists of a discrete program with an analog environment. We model hybrid systems as nite automata equipped with variables that evolve continuously with time according to dynamica ..."
Abstract

Cited by 596 (69 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We present a general framework for the formal specification and algorithmic analysis of hybrid systems. A hybrid system consists of a discrete program with an analog environment. We model hybrid systems as nite automata equipped with variables that evolve continuously with time according to dynamical laws. For verification purposes, we restrict ourselves to linear hybrid systems, where all variables follow piecewiselinear trajectories. We provide decidability and undecidability results for classes of linear hybrid systems, and we show that standard programanalysis techniques can be adapted to linear hybrid systems. In particular, we consider symbolic modelchecking and minimization procedures that are based on the reachability analysis of an infinite state space. The procedures iteratively compute state sets that are definable as unions of convex polyhedra in multidimensional real space. We also present approximation techniques for dealing with systems for which the iterative procedures do not converge.
The Theory of Hybrid Automata
, 1996
"... A hybrid automaton is a formal model for a mixed discretecontinuous system. We classify hybrid automata acoording to what questions about their behavior can be answered algorithmically. The classification reveals structure on mixed discretecontinuous state spaces that was previously studied on pur ..."
Abstract

Cited by 483 (9 self)
 Add to MetaCart
A hybrid automaton is a formal model for a mixed discretecontinuous system. We classify hybrid automata acoording to what questions about their behavior can be answered algorithmically. The classification reveals structure on mixed discretecontinuous state spaces that was previously studied on purely discrete state spaces only. In particular, various classes of hybrid automata induce finitary trace equivalence (or similarity, or bisimilarity) relations on an uncountable state space, thus permitting the application of various modelchecking techniques that were originally developed for finitestate systems.
Hybrid Automata: An Algorithmic Approach to the Specification and Verification of Hybrid Systems
, 1992
"... We introduce the framework of hybrid automata as a model and specification language for hybrid systems. Hybrid automata can be viewed as a generalization of timed automata, in which the behavior of variables is governed in each state by a set of differential equations. We show that many of the examp ..."
Abstract

Cited by 360 (20 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We introduce the framework of hybrid automata as a model and specification language for hybrid systems. Hybrid automata can be viewed as a generalization of timed automata, in which the behavior of variables is governed in each state by a set of differential equations. We show that many of the examples considered in the workshop can be defined by hybrid automata. While the reachability problem is undecidable even for very restricted classes of hybrid automata, we present two semidecision procedures for verifying safety properties of piecewiselinear hybrid automata, in which all variables change at constant rates. The two procedures are based, respectively, on minimizing and computing fixpoints on generally infinite state spaces. We show that if the procedures terminate, then they give correct answers. We then demonstrate that for many of the typical workshop examples, the procedures do terminate and thus provide an automatic way for verifying their properties. 1 Introduction More and...
Reachability Analysis of Dynamical Systems having PiecewiseConstant Derivatives
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 1995
"... In this paper we consider a class of hybrid systems, namely dynamical systems with piecewiseconstant derivatives (PCD systems). Such systems consist of a partition of the Euclidean space into a finite set of polyhedral sets (regions). Within each region the dynamics is defined by a constant vector ..."
Abstract

Cited by 111 (18 self)
 Add to MetaCart
In this paper we consider a class of hybrid systems, namely dynamical systems with piecewiseconstant derivatives (PCD systems). Such systems consist of a partition of the Euclidean space into a finite set of polyhedral sets (regions). Within each region the dynamics is defined by a constant vector field, hence discrete transitions occur only on the boundaries between regions where the trajectories change their direction. With respect to such systems we investigate the reachability question: Given an effective description of the systems and of two polyhedral subsets P and Q of the statespace, is there a trajectory starting at some x 2 P and reaching some point in Q? Our main results are a decision procedure for twodimensional systems, and an undecidability result for three or more dimensions. 1 Introduction 1.1 Motivation Hybrid systems (HS) are systems that combine intercommunicating discrete and continuous components. Most embedded systems belong to this class since they operate...
Verification of RealTime Systems using Linear Relation Analysis
 FORMAL METHODS IN SYSTEM DESIGN
, 1997
"... Linear Relation Analysis [CH78] is an abstract interpretation devoted to the automatic discovery of invariant linear inequalities among numerical variables of a program. In this paper, we apply such an analysis to the verification of quantitative time properties of two kinds of systems: synchronous ..."
Abstract

Cited by 108 (5 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Linear Relation Analysis [CH78] is an abstract interpretation devoted to the automatic discovery of invariant linear inequalities among numerical variables of a program. In this paper, we apply such an analysis to the verification of quantitative time properties of two kinds of systems: synchronous programs and linear hybrid systems.
Liveness in Timed and Untimed Systems
, 1994
"... When proving the correctness of algorithms in distributed systems, one generally considers safety conditions and liveness conditions. The Input/Output (I/O) automaton model and its timed version have been used successfully, but have focused on safety conditions and on a restricted form of liveness c ..."
Abstract

Cited by 83 (17 self)
 Add to MetaCart
When proving the correctness of algorithms in distributed systems, one generally considers safety conditions and liveness conditions. The Input/Output (I/O) automaton model and its timed version have been used successfully, but have focused on safety conditions and on a restricted form of liveness called fairness. In this paper we develop a new I/O automaton model, and a new timed I/O automaton model, that permit the verification of general liveness properties on the basis of existing verification techniques. Our models include a notion of environmentfreedom which generalizes the idea of receptiveness of other existing formalisms, and enables the use of compositional verification techniques.
Verification of Linear Hybrid Systems By Means of Convex Approximations
, 1994
"... We present a new application of the abstract interpretation by means of convex polyhedra, to a class of hybrid systems, i.e., systems involving both discrete and continuous variables. The result is an efficient automatic tool for approximate, but conservative, verification of reachability propert ..."
Abstract

Cited by 79 (2 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We present a new application of the abstract interpretation by means of convex polyhedra, to a class of hybrid systems, i.e., systems involving both discrete and continuous variables. The result is an efficient automatic tool for approximate, but conservative, verification of reachability properties of these systems. 1 Introduction Timed automata [AD90] have been recently introduced to model realtime systems. A timed automaton is a finite automaton associated with a finite set of clocks, each clock counting the continuous elapsing of time. Each transition of the automaton can be guarded by a simple linear condition on the clock values, and can result in resetting some clocks to zero. A nice feature of this model is that it can be abstracted into a finite state system, and that all the standard verification problems (reachability, TCTL modelchecking [ACD90, HNSY92]) are decidable. However, many interesting extensions of this model have been shown to lose this decidability propert...
Effective Synthesis of Switching Controllers for Linear Systems
, 2000
"... In this work we suggest a novel methodology for synthesizing switching controllers for continuous and hybrid systems whose dynamics are defined by linear differential equations. We formulate the synthesis problem as finding the conditions upon which a controller should switch the behavior of the sys ..."
Abstract

Cited by 78 (8 self)
 Add to MetaCart
In this work we suggest a novel methodology for synthesizing switching controllers for continuous and hybrid systems whose dynamics are defined by linear differential equations. We formulate the synthesis problem as finding the conditions upon which a controller should switch the behavior of the system from one "mode" to another in order to avoid a set of bad states, and propose an abstract algorithm which solves the problem by an iterative computation of reachable states. We have implemented a concrete version of the algorithm, which uses a new approximation scheme for reachability analysis of linear systems.
An Approach to the Description and Analysis of Hybrid Systems
"... Introduction The paper presents a model for hybrid systems, that is, systems that combine discrete and continuous components. Such systems are usually reactive realtime systems used to control an environment evolving over time. A main assumption is that a run of a hybrid system is a sequence of two ..."
Abstract

Cited by 77 (3 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Introduction The paper presents a model for hybrid systems, that is, systems that combine discrete and continuous components. Such systems are usually reactive realtime systems used to control an environment evolving over time. A main assumption is that a run of a hybrid system is a sequence of twophase steps. The first phase of a step corresponds to a continuous state transformation usually described in terms of some parameter representing the time elapsed during this phase. In the second phase the state is submitted to a discrete change taking zero time. To illustrate this assumption, consider a temperature regulator commanding a heater so as to maintain the temperature ` of a room between two given bounds ` min and ` max . A run of such a system is a sequence of steps determined by the alternating state changes of the heater from ON to OFF<F26.
Verifying Hybrid Systems
 In Grossman et al
, 1993
"... . Hybrid systems are modeled as phase transition systems with sampling semantics. By identifying a set of important events it is ensured that all significant state changes are observed, thus correcting previous drawbacks of the sampling computations semantics. A proof rule for verifying properties o ..."
Abstract

Cited by 73 (1 self)
 Add to MetaCart
. Hybrid systems are modeled as phase transition systems with sampling semantics. By identifying a set of important events it is ensured that all significant state changes are observed, thus correcting previous drawbacks of the sampling computations semantics. A proof rule for verifying properties of hybrid systems is presented and illustrated on several examples. Keywords: Temporal logic, realtime, specification, verification, hybrid systems, statecharts, proof rules, phase transition system, sampling semantics, important events. 1 Introduction Hybrid systems are reactive systems that intermix discrete and continuous components. Typical examples are digital controllers that interact with continuously changing physical environments. A formal model for hybrid systems was proposed in [MMP92], based on the notion of phase transition systems (PTS). Two types of semantics were considered in [MMP92]. The first semantics, to which we refer here as the super dense semantics, is based on hyb...